Also, when the laser power, HV and offset were increased with reg

Also, when the laser power, HV and offset were increased with regard to DNA probe, LNA probe increased multifold in signal intensity and background (Additional

file 3: Figure S3C). The laser settings were then lowered for LNA probe to such an extent that even the lowest signal produced by LNA was detectable. Different probe concentrations LEE011 cell line were also tested for DNA and LNA in order for detecting Arsenophonus where 1 pmoles concentration showed good results. At lower probe concentration (0.6pmoles) that was used for detection of Portiera, DNA failed to produce any signal for Arsenophonus, even though non-specific background signals could still be detected (Additional file 4: Figure S4A). LNA probe produced low intensity signals at the same concentration (Additional file 4: Figure S4B). Figure 4 FISH staining of Arsenophonus 16 S rRNA in whole mount of whitefly Bemisia tabaci . (A.b) DNA probe stains Arsenophonus in the bacteriocytes; (B.b) at the same concentration (1.0 pmoles) LNA probe shows higher signal and a low background while staining for Arsenophonus. Arrows indicate the bacteriocytes. White arrowhead indicates the non-specific background in DNA samples. The images have been taken at best formamide

concentration for Arsenophonus DNA (30%) and LNA (70%) AZD1080 cell line probes separately. Both DNA and LNA panels also show merged and DIC images (as a and c respectively). We found that LNA probes produced very high signals when compared to the DNA probes (Figure 4) while detecting Arsenophonus.

We performed all the intensity measurements only after background correction. The LNA probe of had highest intensity values (>60,000) at 70% formamide concentration while the lowest (30,000) at 10%. DNA probe had highest intensity at 30% formamide concentration (39,000) and lowest at (16,000) 80% formamide concentration. At 10% formamide concentration, LNA signal was nearly as low as the DNA signal (Figure 5). The DNA probe gave an intensity which was similar to that of LNA probe at 0% formamide concentration. Similar to the earlier case of Portiera, 0% formamide gave high signal intensity as well as very high background noise. Therefore we did not consider it as an ideal concentration to eFT508 ic50 detect the difference between the probes. It was seen that DNA probe produced good signal only at very low formamide concentration unlike LNA probe. Negative controls did not show any signal for Arsenophonus (Additional file 1: Figure S1 & Additional file 2: Figure S2). Since high formamide concentration produces high stringency, false positive signals get negated while using LNA probes. Figure 5 Comparison between LNA and DNA probes for detecting endosymbiont of lower abundance ( Arsenophonus ). All specimens were processed using the procedure described for Portiera. However, the probe concentration used for Arsenophonus was 1.0 pmoles and kept identical for LNA and DNA.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012,109(42):16870–16875 PubMedCentralPu

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012,109(42):16870–16875.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 56. Wang Y, Sun M, Bao H, White AP: T3_MM: a Markov model effectively classifies bacterial type III secretion signals. PLoS ONE 2013,8(3):e58173.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef selleckchem 57. Sory MP, Boland A, Lambermont I, Cornelis GR: Identification of the YopE and YopH domains required for secretion and internalization into the cytosol of macrophages, using the cyaA gene fusion

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Figure 2

Figure 2 Structure and sequence comparison of the CYP61 gene from X . dendrorhous. (A) PCR-amplified DNA region that includes the CYP61 gene from X. dendrorhous. The nine exons of the CYP61 gene are shown in thick red arrows (E1 to E9) and the recognition site of primers used in this work are represented by thin arrows. (B) Sequence comparison of CYP61 genes from different X. dendrorhous strains: UCD 67–385 [GenBank: JX183236], CBS 6938 [GenBank: JX183240], VKM selleck products Y-2786 [GenBank: JX183238], UCD 67–210 [GenBank: JX183237], AVHN2 [GenBank: JX183239], ANCH03 [GenBank: JX183241], ANCH07 [GenBank: JX183242] and ANCH10 [GenBank: JX183243]. The base changes are shown indicating their position in bp, with

the adenine of the translation start codon as bp 1. The respective exon (E-1 to E-9) or intron (I-1 to I-8) where Savolitinib mw the base changes occur is also indicated. The CYP61 gene from several X. dendrorhous strains (VKM Y-2786, CBS 6938, UCD 67–210, ANCH03, ANCH07, ANCH10 and AVHN2 (Table  2) was PCR-amplified using Pfu DNA pol, and each amplicon was sequenced [GenBank: JX183238, JX183240, JX183237, JX183241,

JX183242, JX183243 and JX183239, respectively]. We found several base changes, but most of them were located in the intronic regions. Only four base changes produced amino acid replacements; the adenine, guanine, guanine and cytosine at positions 34, 79, 1,573 and 2,075 were converted to guanine, adenine, adenine and thymine (numeration according to the CYP61 gene translation start in strain UCD 67–385), resulting in T12A, A27T, R306K and P409S variations at the deduced amino acid sequence, respectively (Figure  2B). Table 2 Strains and Plasmids used and built in this work   Genotype or relevant features Source or reference Strains:     E. coli:     DH-5α F- φ80d lacZΔM15Δ (lacZY-argF) U169 deoR recA1 endA1 hsdR17(rk- mk+) phoA supE44l- thi-1 gyrA96 relA1 [52] X. dendrorhous:     UCD 67-385 ATCC 24230, wild type. ATCC Diploid strain [30] 385-cyp61 (+/−) (385-CYP61/cyp61 hph ). Heterozygote transformant derived from UCD 67–385 containing an allele of the CYP61 locus interrupted with

a hygromycin B resistance cassette. This work 385-cyp61 (−/−) (385-cyp61 hph /cyp61 Avelestat (AZD9668) zeo ). Homozygote transformant derived by transformation of 385-cyp61 +/− with both CYP61 alleles interrupted, one with a hygromycin B resistance cassette and the other with a zeocin resistance cassette. This work CBS 6938 ATCC 96594, wild type. ATCC CBS-cyp61 (−) (CBS-cyp61 hph ). Hemizygote transformant derived from CBS 6938. The single CYP61 locus was interrupted with a hygromycin B resistance cassette. This work AVHN2* Chilean native isolate, wild type. Our Lab collection Av2-cyp61 (−) (Av2-cyp61 zeo ). Hemizygote transformant derived from AVHN2. The single CYP61 locus was interrupted with a zeocin resistance cassette. This work UCD 67-210 ATCC 24202, wild type (Phaffia rhodozyma) ATCC VKM Y-2786 Wild-type strain.

Sequences of the complete HA genes isolated from multiple escape

Sequences of the complete HA genes isolated from multiple escape variants were compared with the parental virus. It was found that mutants

generated with Mab 62 have a single mutation on amino acid 175 from Lysine to Glutamate. Mab 98 carried mutations either at amino acid 136 (Ser to Gly), or 137 (Gly to Arg). The numbering of amino acid on HA starts from “ATG” and includes the signal peptide. In order to determine the significance this website of the neutralization epitopes of Mab 62 and 98, the protein polymorphism of H7 was studied (Table 2), taking into account all H7 sequences in the NCBI database. On the 175th amino acid, Lysine and Asparagine appear in more than 99.9% of H7 AIV strains listed. Lysine is the most dominant amino acid with the frequency of 97.9% among avian H7 strains and 100% among human H7s. On the 136th amino acid, Serine exists in 96.6% of avian strains and 100% of human H7 strains, while Glycine on the 137th amino acid exists in 99.9% of avian H7 and 100% of human strains. This finding indicates that the two Mabs are able to recognize or neutralize all the H7 human strain identified so far, suggesting their Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor potential for universal H7 AIV detection. Table 2 Epitope frequency in both human and avian H7 strains Mab Amino acid Human frequency Avian frequency 98 136 Ser 100% 96.6% 137 Gly

100% 99.9% 62 175 Lys 100% 97.9% Development of the dual-function-ELISA The dual-function-ELISA was operated as shown in Figure 1. Resveratrol H7 antigen can be detected in an AC-ELISA based on H7 specific Mabs. Mab 62 was randomly selected as the detector antibody Idasanutlin datasheet and Mab 98 was used as the capture antibody due to their equivalent performance in the reversible use in H7 AC-ELISA. Optimal concentrations of

MAbs 62 and 98 for detection and capture were determined by two-way titration of MAb concentrations. The combination that gave the highest signal-to-noise ratio was determined to be 0.5 ug/well of capture MAb 98 and 0.9 ug/well of MAb 62 for detection. The tested virus was considered to be positive with H7 antigen in the dual ELISA when the absorbance was three times higher than that of the non-H7 viruses. Figure 1 Procedures of both antigen and antibody detection in the dual-function-ELISA. Serum antibodies to H7 can be detected by virtue of their ability to block the recognition of the target epitope by a H7 specific Mab in an ELISA assay. To combine this assay to the AC-ELISA, serum samples were incubated with the fixed amount of recombinant baculovirus, which displays H7 on the virus surface, before being loaded to the plate coated with the capture Mab. H7 antibody titers in samples were determined based on the reduction of the detected H7 baculovirus. Different concentrations of H7 baculovirus were tested before confirming the optimal concentration at 8 HAU. Serum panels from normal or H7 immunized chicken and mice were used to determine the cut-off value.

More attractive is presently the hypothesis that, saquinavir-medi

More attractive is presently the hypothesis that, saquinavir-mediated up-regulation Saracatinib of c-Myc expression, could be the consequence of drug-induced proteosoma impairment [26], resulting in the failure of c-Myc protein degradation [31]. Indeed, the drug is able to reverse also the decline of c-Myc protein following siRNA- mediated “knock down”. In line with this hypothesis, beside to a c-Myc mediated increase of hTERT transcription, we cannot rule out also that reduction of protein degradation could be partially involved in saquinavir-induced hTERT up-regulation. Of particular interest is the finding that saquinavir-induced telomerase increase

was followed by increased proliferation rate in activated normal mononuclear cells [9]. On the contrary, as shown in the present study, cell growth impairment occurred when Jurkat leukemia cells were subjected to similar selleck kinase inhibitor experimental conditions. No data are presently available to identify the mechanism underlying the different responses to saquinavir between normal and malignant lymphoid cells. It is reasonable to assume that telomerase activity and cell proliferation can be disjointed processes differentially regulated in different types of cells.

For example, dichotomy between telomerase activity and proliferation was demonstrated in highly differentiated “old” CD8+T cells following PDL-1 signalling blockade [32]. In any case, the finding that saquinavir is able to augment telomerase activity Q-VD-Oph order could be considered a negative aspect of the pharmacological profile of this molecule in oncology. However, high levels of telomerase are constitutively expressed in the majority of malignant cells (reviewed in 13). Therefore, increase of telomerase expression should not modify substantially the already “immortal” phenotype produced by the basal levels of this enzyme complex in cancer cells [33]. On the other hand, large experimental evidence is now available showing

Adenosine triphosphate that hTERT could be involved in host’s immune responsiveness against autochtonous tumor. A number of HLA-restricted peptides can be generated following proteosomal-mediated degradation of hTERT protein. These peptides, presented by Class I HLA molecules on malignant cell surface elicit CD8+ T cell cytotoxic response of the host, leading to potentially efficient antitumor immunity (reviewed in 15, 16). It is reasonable to hypothesize that drug-induced up-regulation of hTERT could increase the probability of endocellular generation of hTERT-derived peptides showing the molecular pattern required for presentation in association with class I HLA gene products on the cell membrane of neoplastic cells. This would enhance, at least in principle, the level of host’s immune cytotoxic responsiveness against malignant cells.

Exhaustive swimming significantly (p <0 05) increased the MDA lev

Exhaustive swimming significantly (p <0.05) increased the MDA levels in control group, which indicates increased sacrolemma lipid peroxidation in muscle tissue. Exercise-induced elevation in MDA levels were significantly (p <0.05) attenuated in Rg1 group (Figure 2). However, no significant change in muscle protein carbonyl levels was noticed either by exhaustive exercise or by Rg1 treatment (Figure 3). Figure

2 Effect of Rg1 administration on muscle MDA levels in exhaustive exercised rats. * indicates significant difference CH5183284 datasheet against control non-exercise group. # indicates significant Selleck Ro 61-8048 difference against control exercise group. Figure 3 Effect of Rg1 administration on muscle PC levels in exhaustive exercised rats. The changes in GSH content and GSH/GSSG ratio are shown in Figure 4A and 4B. Skeletal muscle GSH content was drastically (p <0.05) decreased after exhaustive exercise in control group. However, this decrease was not found in Rg1 pretreated exercised rats. Similarly, GSH/GSSG ratio was also decreased after exercise in control group. The loss PSI-7977 clinical trial in GSH/GSSG ratio was rescued in Rg1 pretreated exercised rats, and this was significantly higher compared to control exercised rats. Figure 4 Effect of Rg1 administration on muscle GSH levels (A) and GSH/GSSG ratio (B) in exhaustive exercised rats.

* indicates significant difference against control non-exercise group. # indicates significant difference against control exercise group. Exhaustive exercise marginally (p <0.07) Rolziracetam decreased SOD activity in control group (Figure 5), but this decrease was not significant in Rg1 group. In contrast

to SOD results, CAT was increased significantly (p <0.05) after exhaustive exercise in control group compared to non-exercise rats (Figure 6). Rg1 treatment also increased CAT activity in non-exercise rats, while, no effect of Rg1 after exhaustive exercise. Figure 5 Effect of Rg1 administration on muscle SOD activity in exhaustive exercised rats. Figure 6 Effect of Rg1 administration on muscle CAT activity in exhaustive exercised rats. * indicates significant difference against control non-exercise group. † indicates significant difference against control non-exercise group. Exhaustive exercise significantly (p <0.05) increased the GPx activity in control group, but no change in Rg1 group (Figure 7A). Nevertheless, Rg1 alone increased the GPx activity in non-exercise rats. In contrast to GPx response, GR activity was not influenced by exhaustive exercise in control group, but increased in Rg1 group after exercise. This increase was statistically significant compared to control exercise rats (Figure 7B). Similar with GR, GST activity was also not influenced by exercise in control group, but increased after exercise in Rg1 group compared to control group (Figure 7C). Figure 7 Effect of Rg1 administration on muscle GPx (A), GR (B) and GST (C) activities in exhaustive exercised rats.

Screening of extracellular enzymes No studies on characterization

Screening of extracellular enzymes No studies on characterization of extracellular enzyme production from marine actinobacteria of A & N Islands have been reported. Of 26 isolates, 22 isolates were found to synthesize gelatinase and urease, 21 isolates demonstrated amylolytic activity, 20 isolates exhibited

proteolytic and lipolytic activity and 18 isolates displayed cellulolytic activity. AC220 price Interestingly, 16 isolates exhibited excellent DNase activity and 8 isolates revealed positive for alkaline phosphatase (Figure 5). To our recognition, 13 isolates exhibited constructive results in the production of 8 extracellular enzymes of industrial selleck screening library importance. Streptomyces sp. NIOT-VKKMA02, Streptomyces sp. NIOT-VKKMA26 and Saccharopolyspora sp. NIOT-VKKMA22 exhibited elevated enzymatic activity for all 8 industrial enzymes. Consequently, these potent isolates were subjected for the detailed characterization on industrially potent enzymes like amylase, cellulase and protease. Production of enzymes by the potent isolates was achieved by submerged fermentation and their enzymatic activities are shown in Table 5. As specified in the table, isolate Streptomyces sp. NIOT-VKKMA02 proved maximum amylolytic activity (R/r = 4.3), proteolytic activity (R/r = 3.1) and cellulolytic activity (R/r = 2.8). Spectrophotometric

analysis on amylase production in Streptomyces sp. NIOT-VKKMA02, Streptomyces sp. NIOT-VKKMA26 and Saccharopolyspora sp. NIOT-VKKMA22 were found to be in higher side with 13.27 U/ml, 9.85 U/ml and 8.03 U/ml respectively. No studies have ever been reported with that of utmost production in industrially potent enzymes by our isolates. Moreover, production H 89 research buy of cellulase by Streptomyces sp. NIOT-VKKMA02, Streptomyces sp. NIOT-VKKMA26 and Saccharopolyspora sp. NIOT-VKKMA22 were also found to

be in elevated phase with 7.75 U/ml, 5.01 U/ml and 2.08 U/ml, respectively. Quantitative assay of proteolytic activity revealed that Streptomyces sp. NIOT-VKKMA02, Streptomyces sp. NIOT-VKKMA26 and Saccharopolyspora sp. NIOT-VKKMA22 Ponatinib in vitro produced 11.34 U/ml, 6.89 U/ml and 3.51 U/ml of protease enzyme, respectively. Figure 5 Multi-enzyme activity of actinobacterial isolates from A & N Islands. Table 5 Enzyme activity of potential isolates Isolates Amylolytic zone (R/r)* Amylase (IU/ml) Cellulolytic zone (R/r) Cellulase (IU/ml) Proteolytic zone (R/r) Protease (IU/ml) Streptomyces sp. NIOT-VKKMA02 4.3 13.27 2.8 7.75 3.1 11.34 Streptomyces sp. NIOT-VKKMA26 3.6 9.85 2.1 5.01 2.3 6.89 Saccharopolyspora sp. NIOT-VKKMA22 3.1 8.03 1.7 2.08 1.9 3.51 *R: Hydrolyzed zone diameter; r: Growth zone diameter. Molecular identification and phylogenies of potential isolates Phylogenetic relationships of our isolates were ascertained based on the 16S rRNA sequence similarity with reported strains using BLAST sequence similarity search. Upon analysis, it was established that the deduced 16S rRNA sequences of Streptomyces sp.

coli which

peaked around 10 – 30 nM/OD600nm (Figures 3 an

coli which

peaked around 10 – 30 nM/OD600nm (Figures 3 and 4). Some bacterial strains, however, displayed much higher or lower ATP levels. For example, a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter junii (AJ4970) had a peak extracellular ATP level of > 250 nM/OD600nm, several fold higher than the peak concentrations observed in most bacterial strains (Table 5). In contrast a clinical isolate AZD9291 price of Klebsiella pneumoniae had a low peak ATP level of approximately 1 nM/OD600nm (Table 5). The extracellular ATP did not appear to display a species – specific pattern and strains from the same bacterial species could have very different peak ATP levels (e.g. AJ4970 at 255.2 ± 56.8 nM/OD600nm vs. AJ4978 at 17.0 ± 1.1 nM/OD600nm), suggesting that extracellular ATP is a common phenomenon to many bacterial species while the dynamics of ATP release is

different in each bacterial strain. Table 5 Extracellular ATP from various bacterial species Strain Species Peak hour Peak level (nM/OD) AJ4970 Acinetobacter junii 6 255.2 ± 56.8 AJ4978 Acinetobacter junii 6 17.0 ± 1.1 PA292 Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6 25.5 ± 1.1 PA4553 Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3 20.5 ± 0.6 KP7690 Klebsiella pneumoniae 9 9.3 ± 0.5 KP2320 Klebsiella pneumoniae 9 1.0 ± 0.0 KO76 Klebsiella oxytoca 3 31.1 ± 4.0 SA25923 Staphylococus aureus 6 21.4 ± 3.5 MRSA43300 Staphylococus aureus 6 19.3 ± 1.3 Results are the average of three assays with standard deviations. The ATP levels of two isolates of Acinetobacter junii FK866 chemical structure AJ4970 and AJ4978 were analyzed in more details to compare the quantity of ATP in the JPH203 in vivo culture supernatant to that in bacterial Obatoclax Mesylate (GX15-070) cells. Overnight culture of AJ4970 or AJ4978 was diluted 1:100 in fresh LB broth and cultured at 37°C with shaking. Aliquots were collected at various time points and the ATP levels in the culture supernatant and bacterial pellet were determined (Figure 7A

and B). The ratio of total ATP in the supernatant to that in the bacterial pellet from the same volume of bacterial culture was also determined (Figure 7C). The ATP level in the culture supernatant of AJ4970 reached a peak level of over 300 nM at 6 hours of incubation (Figure 7A) and the ratio of ATP in the culture supernatant to that in the pellet (total ATP in supernatant/total ATP in the pellet) peaked at 0.58 at 9 hours of incubation (Figure 7C). By comparison AJ4978 displayed much lower ATP levels in the culture supernatant as well as lower supernatant/pellet ratios of ATP (Figure 7A and C). The ATP levels in the bacterial cells were comparable in AJ4970 and AJ4978, except that AJ4978 had a higher intracellular ATP level at 3 hours of incubation (Figure 7B). Figure 7 ATP levels in the cultures of Acinetobacter junii . Overnight cultures of two clinical isolates of Acinetobacter junii AJ4970 and AJ4978 were diluted 1:100 in fresh LB broth and cultured at 37°C with shaking.

Figure 1 illustrates parent and child terms of “”GO: 0044403 symb

Figure 1 illustrates parent and child terms of “”GO: 0044403 symbiosis, encompassing mutualism through Fulvestrant in vitro parasitism”", as viewed with the AmiGO browser [10]. Examples of child terms describing biological processes related directly or peripherally

to nutritional exchange between symbionts and hosts include: “”GO: 00051816 acquisition of nutrients from other organism during symbiotic interaction”"; “”GO: 0051817 modification of morphology or physiology of other organism during symbiotic interaction”"; Entinostat and “”GO: 0009877 nodulation”". These and other terms are described in greater detail in Figure 2 and Additional file 1. Figure 1 Parent and child terms of “”GO: 0044403 symbiosis, encompassing mutualism

through parasitism”" displayed in the AmiGO browser [10]. “”GO: 0044403 symbiosis, encompassing mutualism through parasitism”" has several child terms that describe processes involved in nutrient exchange: “”GO: 00051816 acquisition of nutrients GSK1904529A supplier from other organism during symbiotic interaction”"; “”GO: 0051817 modification of morphology or physiology of other organism during symbiotic interaction”"; and “”GO: 0009877 nodulation”". These terms (highlighted by dark ovals), and selected child terms, can be seen in greater context in Figure 2. (Note that the numbers of gene products annotated to a given term, as typically displayed by AmiGO, have been removed for simplicity.) Figure 2 Gene Ontology terms

relevant to three phases of symbiotic nutrient exchange. Processes associated with phases I and II of nutrient exchange are described by GO terms from the “”GO: 0008150 biological_process”" ontology. Terms at the top of the diagram describe PLEK2 higher level processes, terms in the middle represent symbiont processes, and terms at the bottom characterize host processes. Functions associated with phase III are described with GO terms from the “”GO: 0003674 molecular_function”" ontology that describe nutrient uptake irrespective of symbiotic partner. In the GO, term relationships take the form of a directed acyclic graph (DAG), similar to a hierarchy, except that a given term can have multiple parent terms or multiple child terms. Here, for simplicity, only selected terms are shown, and only a subset of the parent-child relationships are depicted; arrows symbolize GO “”is_a”" and “”part_of”" relationships (for more information on term relationships and other aspects ontology structure, i.e. “”is_a”", “”part_of”", and “”regulates,”" see [9]). Some dashed arrows are used to enhance readability. GO terms highlighted by dark ovals represent GO terms also shown in Figure 1, and terms filled with grey can be found in the text.

e , the sheet resistance below 100 Ω sq−1 can be used as electrod

e., the sheet resistance below 100 Ω sq−1 can be used as electrode [16, 17]. The surface morphologies of pristine PEDOT:PSS film and TiO2-PEDOT:PSS composite

film are depicted in Figure 1a,b, respectively. As is shown in the two images, the surface of modified PEDOT:PSS film is almost smooth, while the TiO2-PEDOT:PSS composite film is rough and has a large surface area which is good for catalytic reduction of I3 −. In TiO2-PEDOT:PSS composite film, as shown in Figure 1b, the thin catalytic layer is composed of TiO2 nanoparticles, and their diameter ranges from 20 to 50 nm. These nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in PEDOT:PSS, forming a network structure, beneficial for electron conduction. Therefore, the performance of DSSCs with TiO2-PEDOT:PSS/PEDOT:PSS/glass TNF-alpha inhibitor CEs could be greatly improved by the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles. Figure 1 SEM images of PEDOT:PSS film (a) and TiO 2 -PEDOT:PSS composite film (b). A typical EIS spectrum for a DSSC exhibits three semicircles in the Nyquist plot, as is shown in Figure 2a. Traditionally, the first semicircle in high-frequency region corresponds to charge transfer resistance (R ct) of the CE/electrolyte interface, while the find more second semicircle in the middle-frequency region represents charge transfer and recombination

resistance in the TiO2/dye network [18, 19]. The low-frequency semicircle is attributed SAHA mouse to the Nernst diffusion Montelukast Sodium impedance of the I−/I3 − redox couple. From Figure 2a, we can obviously see that the spectra of TiO2-PEDO:PSS/PEDO:PSS/glass CE has a smaller semicircle than that of the POEDT:PSS/FTO CE, which indicates that TiO2-PEDO:PSS/PEDO:PSS/glass

CE has a better catalytic activity than POEDT:PSS/FTO CE. The simulated values of series resistance (R s), charge tansfer resistance (R ct), and diffusion element (Z w1) of corresponding cells calculated by Zview software are shown in Table 1. The simulated R ct and Z w1 of TiO2-PEDO:PSS/PEDO:PSS/glass CE (1.51 and 4.02 Ω cm2, respectively) are lower than those of PEDOT:PSS/FTO CE (4.47 and 11.28 Ω cm2, respectively), indicating that the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles greatly improves the catalytic activity for the redox reaction. The R s value of TiO2-PEDOT:PSS/PEDOT:PSS/glass CE is higher than that of PEODT:PSS/FTO CE due to a lower conductivity of PEDOT:PSS layer than that of FTO substrate, and the result is in accordance with the conclusion from the sheet resistance. However, the R ct of TiO2-PEDOT:PSS/PEDOT:PSS/glass composite CE is lower than that of Pt/FTO CE (5.73 Ω cm2) which is opposite to the traditional standpoint that a smaller R ct may lead to a higher fill factor (FF) and η in photovoltaic performance. However, for TiO2-PEDOT:PSS/PEDOT:PSS/glass CE, the charge transfer of the CE/electrolyte interface is mainly illustrated by the second semicircle of the spectra. Similar findings have been reported by He et al. [20] and Roy-Mayhew et al.