Methods: Hundred consecutive patients with trauma admitted to

\n\nMethods: Hundred consecutive patients with trauma admitted to a surgical intensive care unit at a level I trauma center were prospectively analyzed. Demographies, acid-base data and diagnoses, and interventions were collected. Patients were cared for by one physician using a PC approach, or four using conventional (CONV) acid-base balance techniques. The diagnoses and interventions made by CONV physicians were reviewed by the PC Navitoclax mw physician for accuracy and appropriateness using PC techniques. Data are mean +/- SD or percents; p values reflect PC evaluation of CONV analysis.\n\nResults: There were 50 PC

patients and 50 CONV. There were no differences in age (p = 0.13), injury severity score (p = 0.21), number of operations (p = 0.87), transfusions (p = 0.87), or survival (p = 0.15). CONV missed 12 diagnoses of metabolic acidosis (p = 0.03), 10 of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis (p = 0.003), 11 metabolic alkalosis (p = 0.02), and 19 tertiary disorders (p < 0.001). CONV missed 38 diagnoses of increased unmeasured ions (p < 0.001). PC normalized their acid-base balance sooner than CONV (3.3 days +/- 3.4 days vs. 8.3 days +/- 7.4 days, p < 0.01).\n\nConclusions:

A PC approach imp roves acid-base diagnosis accuracy. GW786034 CONV often miss acidosis (particularly those because of hyperchloremia), alkalosis, and tertiary disorders. Inappropriate volume loading follows in the wake of misinterpretation selleck of increased base deficit using CONV and is avoided using PC. PC-directed therapy normalizes acid-base balance more rapidly than CONV.”
“Postoperative diplopia and strabismus may result from a variety of ocular surgical procedures. Common underlying mechanisms 432 include sensory disturbance,

scarring, direct extraocular muscle injury, myotoxicity from injections of local anesthesia or antibiotics, and malpositioning of extraocular muscles by implant materials. The most common patterns are vertical and horizontal motility disturbance. Treatment options include prisms, botulinum, occlusion, or surgery. (Surv Ophthalmol 55:335-358, 2010. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.)”
“Aim: The study aims to investigate affect recognition in young people at different stages of psychotic illness.\n\nMethods: Seventy-nine ultra-high risk patients, 30 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy control subjects completed a facial affect labelling test and an affective prosody recognition test. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).\n\nResults: We observed significant impairments in facial and vocal emotion recognition in both of the clinical groups compared with the control group. These group differences remained significant when age, sex and education were taken into account.

Additional groups received vehicle pretreatment, switching to C8-

Additional groups received vehicle pretreatment, switching to C8-Xanthate 1, 2, 3, or 4 days after chlorpyrifos and then continuing with daily C8-Xanthate 4 treatment until 7 days post-chlorpyrifos

treatment. Neurotoxicity was assessed at baseline (before chlorpyrifos) and then daily after chlorpyrifos, using behavioral assessments (e.g., gait score). Neurochemical assays (e.g., serum and brain chlorpyrifos) were performed at the end of study. Pretreatment with C8-Xanthate completely prevented chlorpyrifos toxicity, and delayed introduction of C8-Xanthate reduced toxicity, even when started up to 4 days after chlorpyrifos treatment. Discontinuation of C8-Xanthate treatment 7 days post-chlorpyrifos treatment did not result in the reappearance selleck compound of toxicity, tested through 10 days after chlorpyrifos treatment. These findings suggest that CYP2B Ferroptosis inhibitor drugs inhibitor treatment, even days after chlorpyrifos exposure, and using a peripheral delivery route, may be useful as a therapeutic approach to reduce chlorpyrifos toxicity.”
“Thalassemia is a congenital hemolytic disease caused by defective globin synthesis resulting in decreased quantity of globin chains. Although the Life expectancy

of beta-thalassemia patients has markedly improved over the last few years, patients still suffer from many complications of this congenital disease. The presence of a high incidence of thromboembolic events, mainly in beta-thalassemia intermedia, has led to the identification of a hypercoagulable state in these patients. In this paper, we review the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to hypercoagulability in beta-thalassemia, with a special focus on thalassemia intermedia being the group with the highest incidence of thrombotic events as compared to other types of thalassemias. We also discuss the recommendations for thrombosis prophylaxis in these patients. (c)

2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Oncolytic adenoviruses based on serotype 5 (Ad5) have several shortcomings, ARN-509 molecular weight including the downregulation of its receptor in cancer cells, high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies and hepatotoxicity. Another adenoviral serotype, Ad11, could overcome these obstacles. Here, we show that human cancer cell lines express higher levels of the Ad11 receptor CD46, resulting in much better infectivity than Ad5. Surprisingly, only 36% (9/25) of the cell lines were more sensitive to Ad11- than to Ad5-mediated cytotoxicity. Investigations revealed that it was the transcription of Ad11 E1A, not CD46 expression or virus infectivity, which determined the cell’s sensitivity to Ad11 killing.

We provide evidence to support a possible hypothesis which could

We provide evidence to support a possible hypothesis which could explain much of the

conflicting clinical and experimental evidence.”
“Multivariate regression is increasingly used to study the relation between fMRI spatial activation patterns and experimental stimuli or behavioral ratings. With linear models, informative brain locations are identified by mapping the model coefficients. This is a central aspect in neuroimaging, as it provides the sought-after link between the activity of neuronal populations and subject’s perception, cognition or behavior. Here, we show that mapping of informative brain locations using multivariate linear regression (MLR) may lead to incorrect conclusions and interpretations. this website MLR algorithms for high dimensional data are designed to deal with targets (stimuli or behavioral ratings, in fMRI) separately, and the predictive map of a model integrates information deriving from both neural activity patterns and experimental design. Not accounting explicitly for the presence of other targets whose associated activity spatially overlaps with the one of interest may lead to predictive maps of troublesome interpretation. We propose a new model that can correctly identify the spatial patterns associated with a target while achieving good generalization. For each target, the training is based

on an augmented dataset, which includes all remaining targets. Torin 1 The estimation on such datasets produces both maps and 123 interaction coefficients, which are then used to generalize. The proposed formulation is independent of the regression algorithm employed. We validate this model on simulated fMRI data and on a publicly available dataset. Results indicate that our method achieves high spatial sensitivity and good generalization and that it helps disentangle specific neural effects from interaction with predictive maps associated with other targets. Hum Brain Mapp 35:2163-2177, 2014. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Objectives: 1) Evaluate the effects

of monopolar cautery on cochlear implant devices. 2) Determine whether voltage fluctuations within the cochlear implant adversely affect the Fedratinib molecular weight cochlear implant devices Study Design: Two Med-El cochlear implants modified to record voltage difference from the apical and proximal electrodes were implanted into an unembalmed, fresh cadaver. Cautery was applied to the ipsilateral pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral temporalis muscle at bipolar, monopolar coagulation, and monopolar cut settings of 50 W. The intensity in each modality setting was increased by increments of 10 W to a maximum of 100 W. Integrity testing was performed before, during, and after each cautery setting. Voltage fluctuations were measured during cautery, and maximal voltage changes for each setting were noted. After explantation, devices were returned to the manufacturer for in-depth failure analysis to evaluate for any damage to the devices.

001 with either morphine or placebo) and almost by the efficiency

001 with either morphine or placebo) and almost by the efficiency of morphine (p = 0.020). Captisol Duration of pain relief was 123.7 (standard deviation [SD] +/- 98.2) minutes for morphine. Most other reported symptoms were present at the baseline and were probably associated with the main disease and not secondary to the morphine mouthwash.\n\nConclusions: Our results suggest a possible analgesic effect of topical morphine in line with previous studies. However, more efforts must be made for the adjustment of systemic analgesics

and the 3 development of new alternatives to treat locally OM-associated pain.”
“Oxidative damage has been proposed as one of the possible mechanisms involved in the development

of dialysis-related complications. Strengthening the defense system by supplementing antioxidants may provide protection against oxidative damage. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate oxidant and antioxidant status in chronic renal failure patients undergoing hemodialysis and the effect of UbiQ(100) supplementation on oxidant and antioxidant status. The blood samples were analyzed for quantitation of MDA as index of lipid peroxide, nitric oxide, vitamin E and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. Significantly increased levels of serum lipid peroxide and decreased levels of nitric Pevonedistat order oxide, vitamin E, and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were noticed in the patients both before and after hemodialysis, as compared to control subjects. However, significant reduction in lipid peroxide and

improvement in nitric oxide, vitamin E and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were observed after supplementary treatment of UbiQ(100).”
“Trauma history is not uncommon in patients with sexual problems. Trauma is experienced as a sexual secret. In this paper, two cases with sexual problems are presented, who are survivors of childhood sexual trauma. Similarity between these cases is buy PCI-32765 that the worries about their children play an important role on the emergence of the symptoms of the childhood trauma. Case A was a 34-year-old mother of two children. She had been sexually abused by her brother when she was 12. She had sexual desire and arousal disorders, which started after her worries about a probable similar situation between her children. Case B was a 30-year-old mother of two children. She was sexually abused by a neighbor from 5 years of age until adolescence. Complaints of lack of sexual desire and aversion started when her daughter was 5. PTSD symptoms were related to their childhood sexual trauma in both cases. The aim of this report is to discuss the influence of motherhood on the appearance of trauma symptoms in women with childhood sexual trauma and to emphasize the presence of sexual trauma and sexual secrets.

We addressed a role of this unique motor in secretory PC12 cells,

We addressed a role of this unique motor in secretory PC12 cells, derived from rat adrenal medulla pheochromocytoma using cell lines with reduced MVI synthesis (produced by means of siRNA). Decrease of MVI expression caused severe changes in cell size and morphology, and profound defects in actin cytoskeleton organization and Golgi structure. Also, significant inhibition of cell migration as well as cell proliferation was observed. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that MVI-deficient cells were INCB028050 supplier arrested in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle but did not 3 undergo increased senescence as compared with control cells. Also, neither

polyploidy nor aneuploidy were detected. Surprisingly, no significant effect on noradrenaline secretion was observed. These data indicate that in PC12 cells MVI is involved in cell migration and proliferation but is not crucial for stimulation-dependent catecholamine release.”
“Object. Lumbopelvic fixation provides biomechanical support to the base of the long constructs used for adult spinal

deformity. However, the failure rate of the lumbopelvic fixation and its risk factors are not well known. The authors’ objective was to report the failure rate and risk factors for lumbopelvic fixation click here in long instrumented spinal fusion constructs performed for adult spinal deformity.\n\nMethods. This retrospective review included 190 patients with adult spinal deformity who had long construct instrumentation (> 6 levels) with iliac screws. Patients’ clinical and

radiographic data were analyzed. The patients were divided MLN4924 clinical trial into 2 groups: a failure group and a nonfailure group. A minimum 2-year follow-up was required for inclusion in the nonfailure group. In the failure group, all patients were included in the study regardless of whether the failure occurred before or after 2 years. In both groups, the patients who needed a revision for causes other than lumbopelvic fixation (for example, proximal junctional kyphosis) were also excluded. Failures were defined as major and minor. Major failures included rod breakage between L-4 and S-1, failure of S-1 screws (breakage, halo formation, or pullout), and prominent iliac screws requiring removal. Minor failures included rod breakage between S-1 and iliac screws and failure of iliac screws. Minor failures did not require revision surgery. Multiple clinical and radiographic values were compared between major failures and nonfailures.\n\nResults. Of 190 patients, 67 patients met inclusion criteria and were enrolled in the study. The overall failure rate was 34.3%; 8 patients had major failure (11.9%) and 15 had minor failure (22.4%).

Moreover, PMA-induced IL-1 beta production was significantly redu

Moreover, PMA-induced IL-1 beta production was significantly reduced

in the presence of TLR2, Blasticidin S in vivo TLR4, and CD11b Abs. Rottlerin, a PKC delta-specific inhibitor, significantly reduced PMA-induced IL-1 beta production as well as CD11b, TLR2 expression, and IRAK1-JNK activation. In PKC delta wild-type overexpressing THP1 cells, IRAK1 kinase activity and IL-1 beta production were significantly augmented, whereas recombinant 432 inactive PKCd and PKCd small interfering RNA significantly inhibited basal and PMA-induced IRAK1 activation and IL-1 beta production. Endogenous PKC delta-IRAK1 interaction was observed in quiescent cells, and this interaction was regulated by PMA. IRAK1/4 inhibitors, their small interfering RNAs, and JNK inhibitor also attenuated PMA-induced learn more IL-1 beta production. NF-kappa B activation inhibitor and SN50 peptide inhibitor, however, failed to affect PMA-induced IL-1 beta production. A similar role of IRAK1 in IL-1 beta production and its regulation by PKC delta was evident in the primary human monocytes, thus signifying the importance of our finding. To our knowledge, the results obtained demonstrate for the first time that IRAK1 and PKCd functionally interact to regulate IL-1 beta production in monocytic cells. A novel mechanism of IL-1 beta production that involves TLR2, CD11b,

and the PKC delta/IRAK1/JNK/AP-1 axis is thus being proposed. The Journal of Immunology, 2011, 187: 2632-2645.”
“Adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) is considered as a long-term complication of spinal fusion procedure. Numerous clinical studies have reported some factors related with ASD, but few could address the reason why the incidence of caudal ASD is significantly lower than that of cranial ASD. Because the pedicle of vertebral arch is closer to the superior endplate of vertebrea and its cranial intervertebral disc, there might be some possibilities of malpositions of pedicle probe or screws

into the superior vertebral endplate or disc during the procedure of posterior intervertebral fusion. A number of evidences have showed that puncture of intervertebral disc will result in disc degeneration. Thus the authors put forward the hypothesis that intraoperative malposition of pedicle probe or screws might be a cause of ASD at cranial segments. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: In this study, we examined the clinical application of two training methods for optimizing reading ability in patients with juvenile macular dystrophy with established eccentric preferred retinal locus and optimal use of low-vision aids.\n\nMethod: This randomized study included 36 patients with juvenile macular dystrophy (35 with Stargardt’s disease and one with Best’s disease). All patients have been using individually optimized low-vision aids.

High-level overexpression is also possible, facilitating biochemi

High-level overexpression is also possible, facilitating biochemical and structural studies

of mycobacterial proteins produced in their native host. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved”
“A total of 37 street vended food samples were examined for bacterial STI571 nmr and the colony forming units counts ranged from 4.5 x 10(5) to 1.12 x 10(6). The isolates were identified as Escherichia coli (37.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.57%), Staphylococcus aureus (14.20%), Salmonella sp. (5.36%), Klebsiella sp. (10.71%), Shigella sp. (19.64%) and Enterobacter sp. (8.93%) respectively. All the 56 isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin while their susceptibility to the other drugs varied. These findings demonstrated that the ready-to-eat foods vended in Silchar city constitute an important potential hazard to human health and provision

of health education to the vendors would improve quality of street foods.”
“Objective: To present a case of hepatic hydatid cyst with a biliary GSI-IX purchase communication that was not suitable for surgery and hence necessitated sclerotherapy with absolute alcohol after occluding the biliary communication with a balloon catheter. Clinical Presentation and Intervention: A 50-year-old Asian man presented to the surgical emergency department with a 1-year history of repeated attacks of obstructive jaundice and right hypochondrial pain. Ultrasound and contrast computed tomography revealed a cyst, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and cystography revealed a biliocystic communication. An indirect hemagglutination test for echinococcosis showed the presence of antibodies to Echinococcus species at a titer of 8 establishing the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. Although surgery is the accepted modality of treatment in these cases, the patient was deemed unfit for surgery due to his underlying cardiac problem. VX-661 in vitro While percutaneous treatment with absolute alcohol is contraindicated in his case, it was successfully attempted after balloon occlusion of the biliocystic communication. Conclusion: This

case showed that in this patient with hepatic hydatid disease and biliocystic communication, who was not fit for surgery, percutaneous sclerotherapy with absolute alcohol after balloon occlusion was successfully performed by an interventional radiologist. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the success of limited neck exploration (LE) for primary hyperparathyroidism (1 degrees HPT).\n\nMethods: Between 1999 and 2007, 1407 patients with hyperparathyroidism underwent bilateral neck exploration (BE). Of these, 1158 patients with first-time sporadic P HPT were analyzed prospectively. Based on surgeon-performed ultrasound (US) and sestamibi scan (MIBI), LE was initially performed. Regardless of results, BE followed to identify the presence of additional parathyroid pathology.

The following review examines the current evidence for the pathog

The following review examines the current evidence for the pathogenesis of sinonasal aspergillosis in dogs, as well as the various diagnostic options. The available evidence for frequently utilised -therapeutic options and their likely outcomes is also explored.”
“Rapid test methods are widely used for measuring mycotoxins in a variety of matrices. This review presents an overview of the current commercially available immunoassay rapid test formats. Enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), lateral flow tests, flow through immunoassay, fluorescent polarisation immunoassay,

and immunoaffinity columns coupled with fluorometric assay are common formats in the current market. The two existing evaluation programs AZD8186 price for commercial testing kits by United State Department of Agricultural Grain Inspection, Packers & Stockyards Administration (USDA-GIPSA) and AOAC Research Institute are introduced. The strengths and weaknesses of these test kits are discussed with regard to the application scope, variance, specificity and cross reactivity, accuracy and precision, and measurement range. Generally speaking, the current commercially available testing kits

meet research and industrial needs as ‘fit-for-purpose. Furthermore, quality assurance concerns and future perspectives are elaborated for broader application of commercial test kits in research, industry and regulatory applications. It is expected that new commercial kits based on advanced technologies such as electrochemical affinity find more biosensors, molecularly imprinted Selleck BVD-523 polymers, surface plasmon resonance, fluorescence 4 resonance energy transfer, aptamer-based biosensors and dynamic light scattering might be available to users in the future. Meanwhile, harmonisation of testing kit evaluation, incorporation of more quality assurance into the testing kit utilisation scheme, and a larger variety of kits available at lower cost will expand the usage of testing kits for food safety testing worldwide.”
“Ogawa A, Firth AL,

Smith KA, Maliakal MV, Yuan JX. PDGF enhances store-operated Ca2+ entry by upregulating STIM1/Orai1 via activation of Akt/mTOR in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 302: C405-C411, 2012. First published October 26, 2011; doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00337.2011.-Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptor are known to be substantially elevated in lung tissues and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) isolated from patients and animals with pulmonary arterial hypertension. PDGF has been shown to phosphorylate and activate Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in PASMC. In this study, we investigated the role of PDGF-mediated activation of Akt signaling in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and cell proliferation. PDGF activated the Akt/mTOR pathway and, subsequently, enhanced store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) and cell proliferation in human PASMC.

Inhibition of hFPPS is a clinically validated mechanism for the t

Inhibition of hFPPS is a clinically validated mechanism for the treatment of lytic bone diseases, including osteoporosis and cancer related

bone metastases. A new series of thienopyrimidine-based bisphosphonates (ThP-BPs) were identified that inhibit hFPPS with low nanomolar potency. Crystallographic evidence revealed binding of ThP-BP inhibitors in the allylic subpocket of hFPPS. Simultaneous binding of inorganic pyrophosphate in the IPP subpocket leads to conformational closing of the active site cavity. The ThP-BP analogues are significantly less hydrophilic yet exhibit higher affinity for the bone mineral hydroxyapatite than the current N-BP drug risedronic acid. The antiproliferation properties of GDC-0973 price a potent ThB-BP analogue was assessed in a multiple myeloma cell line and found to be equipotent to the best current N-BP drugs. Consequently, these compounds represent a new structural class of hFPPS inhibitors and a novel scaffold for the development of human therapeutics.”
“The aerial

parts of Chromolaena pulchella biosynthesize two groups of ditierpenes belonging to opposite enantiomeric series, specifically, the furanoid ent-clerodanes (5R,8R,9S,10R)-(-)-hardwikiic acid (1), methyl (5R,8R,9S,10R)-(-)-hardwikiate (2), (55,8R,9S,10R)-(-)-hautriwaic acid lactone (3), methyl (5R,8R,9S,10R)-(-)-nidoresedate Vorinostat price (4) and methyl (8R,9R)-(-)-strictate (5), as well as the labdanes (5S,8R,9R,10S)-(+)-(13E)-labd-13-ene-8,15-diol (6) and (5S,8R,9R,10S)-(+)-isoabienol (7). The absolute configuration of the two groups of diterpenes was unambiguously assigned by comparison of the vibrational circular dichroism spectra of 3 for ent-clerodanes, and of 7 for labdaries with Selisistat their theoretical spectra obtained by density functional theory calculations. The results support a biogenetic proposal to diterpenes found in the studied botanical species. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Cannulated AO screws are commonly used for fracture fixation.

Mechanical failure of screws has been well reported but this was mainly breakage of the screw head during removal. We report an unusual mode of failure of an AO self drilling cannulated screw which we have not previously experienced, where the screw threads were found to be unravelled during insertion. We also suggest the way to recognise this complication early and how to prevent or deal with it.”
“Trichomoniasis is the most common sexually transmitted disease, caused by a motile flagellate non-invasive parasitic protozoan, Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis). More than 160 million people worldwide are annually infected by this protozoan. T. vaginalis occupies an extracellular niche in the complex human genito-urinary environment (vagina, cervix, penis, prostate gland, and urethra) to survive, multiply and evade host defenses. T. vaginalis (strain G3) has a similar to 160 megabase genome with 60,000 genes, the largest number of genes ever identified in protozoans. The T.

AuCl(4)(-) has been extracted into the membrane via ion-exchange

AuCl(4)(-) has been extracted into the membrane via ion-exchange and has been subsequently reduced by L-ascorbic acid, tri-sodium citrate, NaBH(4) or EDTA to form Au NPs.

EDTA at pH 6.0 has been shown to be an effective reducing agent capable of forming a uniform monolayer of Au NPs of average size 20 nm on the surface of the membrane. The other reagents have formed Au NPs of sizes depending on the reagent type and these have been embedded in the bulk of the membrane and not concentrated at the surface.\n\nThe main factors influencing the formation of the surface Au NPs when EDTA is used as the reducing agent have been studied. A 24 h membrane exposure to the EDTA solution has ensured complete surface coverage with Au NPs. KU-55933 It has been observed that as the concentration of EDTA, the solution temperature and shaking rate increase, the size of Au NPs decreases. CDK inhibitor Therefore, these factors

can be used to control the size of Au NPs on the membrane surface.\n\nThe coated with Au NPs membranes are expected to be of interest in optical sensing and catalytic applications. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Lateral gene transfer (LGT)uwhich transfers DNA between two non-vertically related individuals belonging to the same or different speciesuis recognized as a major force in prokaryotic evolution, and evidence of its impact on eukaryotic evolution is ever increasing. LGT has attracted much public attention for its potential to transfer pathogenic elements and antibiotic resistance in bacteria, and to transfer 3 pesticide resistance from genetically modified crops to other plants. In a wider perspective, there is a growing body of studies highlighting the role of LGT in enabling organisms to occupy new niches or adapt selleck to environmental changes. The challenge LGT poses to the standard tree-based conception of evolution is also being debated. Studies of LGT have, however, been severely limited

by a lack of computational tools. The best currently available LGT algorithms are parsimony-based phylogenetic methods, which require a pre-computed gene tree and cannot choose between sometimes wildly differing most parsimonious solutions. Moreover, in many studies, simple heuristics are applied that can only handle putative orthologs and completely disregard gene duplications (GDs). Consequently, proposed LGT among specific gene families, and the rate of LGT in general, remain debated. We present a Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo-based method that integrates GD, gene loss, LGT, and sequence evolution, and apply the method in a genome-wide analysis of two groups of bacteria: Mollicutes and Cyanobacteria. Our analyses show that although the LGT rate between distant species is high, the net combined rate of duplication and close-species LGT is on average higher.