Energy transfer from the S-4(3/2) level of Er3+ to Yb3+ is shown to be inefficient. Efficient downconversion from the (4)G(11/2) of Er3+ level is observed, resulting in emission of two photons (one around 980 nm and one around 650 nm) after absorption of a single 380 nm photon. (c) 2009 American
Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3177257]“
“New-onset diabetes mellitus is a common complication of solid organ transplantation and is likely to become even more common with the current epidemic of obesity in some countries. It has become clear that both new-onset diabetes and prediabetic states (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance) negatively influence graft and patient survival after transplantation. This observation forms the basis Selleck SN-38 for recommending meticulous screening for glucose intolerance before and after transplantation. Although a number of clinical factors
including age, weight, ethnicity, family history, and infection with hepatitis C are closely associated with the new-onset diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression with corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors and possibly sirolimus plays a dominant role in its pathogenesis. Management of new-onset diabetes after transplantation generally conforms to the guidelines for treatment of type 2 diabetes DMH1 mouse mellitus in the general population. However, further studies are needed to determine the optimal immunosuppressive regimens for patients with this disorder.”
“Despite continuous progress toward tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage, significant challenges still remain. Advances in morphogens, stem cells, and scaffolds have resulted in enhancement of the bulk mechanical properties of engineered constructs, but little attention has been paid to the surface mechanical properties. In the near future, engineered tissues will be able to withstand and support the physiological compressive and tensile forces in weight-bearing synovial joints such as the knee. However, there is an increasing realization that these tissue-engineered cartilage constructs PFTα nmr will fail without the optimal frictional and wear properties
present in native articular cartilage. These characteristics are critical to smooth, pain-free joint articulation and a long-lasting, durable cartilage surface. To achieve optimal tribological properties, engineered cartilage therapies will need to incorporate approaches and methods for functional lubrication. Steady progress in cartilage lubrication in native tissues has pushed the pendulum and warranted a shift in the articular cartilage tissue-engineering paradigm. Engineered tissues should be designed and developed to possess both tribological and mechanical properties mirroring natural cartilage. In this article, an overview of the biology and engineering of articular cartilage structure and cartilage lubrication will be presented.