Energy transfer from the S-4(3/2) level of Er3+ to Yb3+ is shown

Energy transfer from the S-4(3/2) level of Er3+ to Yb3+ is shown to be inefficient. Efficient downconversion from the (4)G(11/2) of Er3+ level is observed, resulting in emission of two photons (one around 980 nm and one around 650 nm) after absorption of a single 380 nm photon. (c) 2009 American

Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3177257]“
“New-onset diabetes mellitus is a common complication of solid organ transplantation and is likely to become even more common with the current epidemic of obesity in some countries. It has become clear that both new-onset diabetes and prediabetic states (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance) negatively influence graft and patient survival after transplantation. This observation forms the basis Selleck SN-38 for recommending meticulous screening for glucose intolerance before and after transplantation. Although a number of clinical factors

including age, weight, ethnicity, family history, and infection with hepatitis C are closely associated with the new-onset diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression with corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors and possibly sirolimus plays a dominant role in its pathogenesis. Management of new-onset diabetes after transplantation generally conforms to the guidelines for treatment of type 2 diabetes DMH1 mouse mellitus in the general population. However, further studies are needed to determine the optimal immunosuppressive regimens for patients with this disorder.”
“Despite continuous progress toward tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage, significant challenges still remain. Advances in morphogens, stem cells, and scaffolds have resulted in enhancement of the bulk mechanical properties of engineered constructs, but little attention has been paid to the surface mechanical properties. In the near future, engineered tissues will be able to withstand and support the physiological compressive and tensile forces in weight-bearing synovial joints such as the knee. However, there is an increasing realization that these tissue-engineered cartilage constructs PFTα nmr will fail without the optimal frictional and wear properties

present in native articular cartilage. These characteristics are critical to smooth, pain-free joint articulation and a long-lasting, durable cartilage surface. To achieve optimal tribological properties, engineered cartilage therapies will need to incorporate approaches and methods for functional lubrication. Steady progress in cartilage lubrication in native tissues has pushed the pendulum and warranted a shift in the articular cartilage tissue-engineering paradigm. Engineered tissues should be designed and developed to possess both tribological and mechanical properties mirroring natural cartilage. In this article, an overview of the biology and engineering of articular cartilage structure and cartilage lubrication will be presented.

Serum hepcidin concentrations were not affected by training

Serum hepcidin concentrations were not affected by training selleck chemicals but were associated with iron status and inflammation

pre- and post-BCT. This trial was registered at as NCT01100905. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92: 93-100.”
“The Nd(Fe,Mo)(12)-type alloys are prepared by strip casting technique, and direct nitrogenation of the strips without precrushing is executed in this paper. It is found that 6 h annealing treatment at 1050 degrees C for the strips is enough to obtain the single-phase Nd(Fe,Mo)(12) compounds. The strips can be directly nitrogenated at 620 degrees C to obtain interstitial Nd(Fe,Mo)(12)N-1.0 materials, and a spontaneous pulverization phenomenon in the strips induced by nitrogenation is found. The results indicate that the nitrogenation process

of the strips can be used to prepare Nd(Fe,Mo)(12)N-1.0 interstitial selleck kinase inhibitor nitrides and pulverize the casted strips into fine particles simultaneously. Base on this, we propose a new technical route of preparing Nd(Fe,Mo)(12)N-X magnetic powders without precrushing and obtain anisotropic NdFe10.5Mo1.5N1.0 powders with a remanence of B-r = 1.08 T, a coercivity of H-i(c) = 400 kA/m, and a maximum energy product of (BH)(max) = 144 kJ/m(3). (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3567017]“
“A new-type of dicarboxylic acid was synthesized from the reaction of 2,5-bis(4-aminobenzylidene)cyclopentanone with trimellitic anhydride in a solution of glacial acetic acid/pyridine (Py) at refluxing temperature. Six novel heat resistance poly(amide-imide)s (PAIs) with

good inherent viscosities were synthesized, from the direct polycondensation reaction of N,N’-[2,5-bis(4-aminobenzylidene) cyclopentanone]bistrimellitimide acid with several aromatic diamines, by two different methods such as direct polycondensation in a medium consisting of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)/triphenyl phosphite (TPP)/calcium chloride (CaCl(2))/pyridine (Py) and direct polycondensation in a p-toluene sulfonyl chloride (tosyl chloride, TsCl)/pyridine (Py)/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) system. All of the above polymers were PFTα order fully characterized by (1)H NMR, FTIR, elemental analysis, inherent viscosity, solubility tests, UV-vis spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and derivative of thermaogravimetric (DTG). The resulted poly(amide-imide) s (PAIs) have showed admirable good inherent viscosities, thermal stability, and solubility. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 2877-2885, 2011″
“Background: Calcium is an essential cotherapy in osteoporosis treatment. The relative effectiveness of various calcium salts for this purpose is uncertain. Many older women with osteoporosis have phosphorus intakes of <70% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance.

In this paper, we specifically consider the control of translesio

In this paper, we specifically consider the control of translesion synthesis in the context of the timing of lesion bypass relative to replication fork progression and arrest at sites of DNA damage. We then examine how recent observations concerning the control of translesion synthesis might help refine our view of the mechanisms of immunoglobulin gene somatic hypermutation.”
“Approximately 20% of all twin pregnancies are monochorionic. Between 9% and 15% of all monochorionic twin gestations are complicated by severe chronic twin-to-twin transfusion

syndrome (TTTS), characterized by a gradual shift of blood volume from the donor twin to the recipient twin through 3-MA manufacturer placental vascular connections [1-3]. The prognosis of severe, untreated chronic TTTS diagnosed in midtrimester fetuses is extremely poor, with mortality rates exceeding 70%

[4]. Since publication of the results of the Eurofoetus trial in 2004, laser photocoagulation of the intertwin anastomoses has become accepted as the optimal first-line therapy for severe TTTS diagnosed before 26 weeks of gestation. While Screening Library high throughput laser treatment of vascular communications was initially limited to selected fetal treatment centers, its increasingly widespread use has resulted in the exposure of more pathologists, even in less specialized institutions, to laser-treated placentas. Furthermore, the surge in laser coagulation

has revived the general medical, scientific, and public interest in the placental and choriovascular findings selleck chemical in monochorionic twin placentas. The pathologist’s understanding of the pathophysiology of TTTS and of TTTS-associated placental pathology, including the findings related to laser ablation of the anastomoses, can be of great benefit to the involved obstetric/neonatal/surgical team and, ultimately, to the patients. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the placental contributions to TTTS and other complications of monochorionic twinning and describe the strengths and limitations of placental examination in these settings. It is our expectation that overviews such as this may serve as a template to generate consensus guidelines for standardized and evidence-based pathologic evaluation of monochorionic twin placentas.”
“P>Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile plant secondary metabolite that is an important contributor to taste and scent of many fruits and flowers. It is synthesized from salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone that contributes to plant pathogen defense. MeSA is synthesized by members of a family of O-methyltransferases. In order to elaborate the mechanism of MeSA synthesis in tomato, we screened a set of O-methyltransferases for activity against multiple substrates.

Free sugars are decreased, indicating lower uptake and/or elevate

Free sugars are decreased, indicating lower uptake and/or elevated mobilisation. Lower levels of trans-zeatins suggest that ABA reduction influences rates of cytokinin synthesis and/or its level of accumulation. Abscisic acid deficiency leads to a general downregulation of gene expression related to transcription and translation. At the transcriptional level, anti-ABA embryos reveal a wide-range repression of carbohydrate oxidation, downregulated

sucrose mobilisation, glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle/Krebs cycle (TCA cycle). Genes related to starch, amino acid and storage protein biosynthesis are downregulated, indicating a general decrease in metabolic fluxes. We conclude that during embryo differentiation ABA triggers broad upregulation of gene activity and genetic reprogramming, involving regulated protein degradation via the ubiquitin/proteasome system. Abscisic acid deficiency affects gene expression associated with transport processes and stimulation of membrane energisation. Our study identified mediators and downstream signalling elements of ABA during embryo differentiation, such as the transcription factor FUSCA3, SnRK1 kinase and Ca2+ signalling processes. This suggests that ABA interacts with SnRK1 complexes, thus connecting SnRK1, sugar and stress signalling with

ABA. Certain protein kinases/phosphatases known to negatively respond to ABA are upregulated in the modulated line, whilst those which respond positively are downregulated, pointing to a highly FK866 supplier coordinated response of the gene network to ABA levels.”
“It is well-known that cytosolic NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (cyMDH; L-malate:NAD-oxidoreductase; EC is Tozasertib datasheet an enzyme crucial for malic acid synthesis in the cytosol. Nothing is known about cyMDH in growth and stress tolerance. Here we characterised the role of the apple cyMDH gene (MdcyMDH, GenBank ID: DQ221207) in growth and tolerance to cold and salt stresses. MdcyMDH transcripts were highly accumulated in vigorously

growing apple tissues, organs and suspension cells. In addition, MdcyMDH was sensitive to cold and salt stresses. MdcyMDH overexpression favourably contributed to cell and plant growth and conferred stress tolerance both in the apple callus and tomato. Taken together, our results indicated that MdcyMDH is involved in plant and cell growth as well as the tolerance to cold and salt stresses. (C) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“We investigated the effect of the expanded criteria donor (ECD) label on (i) recovery of kidneys and (ii) acceptance for transplantation given recovery. An ECD is age >= 60, or age 50-59 with >= 2 of 3 specified comorbidities. Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients from 1999 to 2005, we modeled recovery rates through linear regression and transplantation probabilities via logistic regression, focusing on organs from donors just-younger versus just-older than the ECD age thresholds.

Their cell wall, plasma membrane, and nuclear envelope broke down

Their cell wall, plasma membrane, and nuclear envelope broke down high throughput screening with the release of cell debris and nucleic acids into the corrosion cavity. The

occurrence of necrotic-like cell death in gymnosperm embryogenesis provides a favourable model for the study of developmental cell death with necrotic-like morphology and suggests that the mechanism underlying necrotic cell death is evolutionary conserved.”
“Background Time since cancer diagnosis is rarely accounted for in population-based studies of health-related quality of life (HRQL) among cancer survivors. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the relationship between time since cancer diagnosis and impairments in HRQL among short-term, long-term and very long-term cancer survivors in the general population. Methods A cross-sectional population-based survey of 4910 Swedish adults aged 40-79years was conducted between April and June 2008. Three hundred and nineteen cases of cancer were identified, and 4591 participants reported no cancer. Analysis of co-variance (95% confidence intervals), adjusting for age, gender, education, marital status and non-cancer co-morbidity, was performed to compare HRQL ratings, as measured by the European

Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, between short-term (<5years since diagnosis [YSD]), long-term (5-10YSD) and very Oligomycin A Nec-1s datasheet long-term (>10YSD) cancer survivors, and with that of a no-cancer control group. Results No significant differences were observed between the survivor groups across the HRQL scales, with the exception of fatigue and appetite loss, which were greater

among the short-term survivors compared with the very long-term survivors. For the majority of the HRQL scales, ratings were significantly poorer in the short-term survivors compared with controls. Long-term survivors had significantly reduced global quality of life, physical function, social function and fatigue, compared with controls. Differences observed between groups were largely of limited clinical significance. HRQL of very long-term survivors did not differ from controls. Conclusions Although HRQL was similar between short-term, long-term and very long-term survivors, when compared with the background population, findings suggest that some functional impairments and symptoms are present even at 5-10YSD. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Despite their demonstrated health benefits, consumption of pulses in Western societies has traditionally been low. This is, in part, due to the perception that Pulses Cause flatulence and gastrointestinal upset.

This study demonstrates that the quality of surgery is an importa

This study demonstrates that the quality of surgery is an important factor in determining the risk of postoperative complications. Severe adhesions and lung inflammation are conditions that make lung cancer surgery difficult; a skillful and meticulous surgical technique is required in elderly patients.”
“Objective: To identify the types, frequency and impact of asthma triggers and the relationship to asthma Selleckchem VX-765 control among adults with asthma in Europe. Methods: Adults with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma receiving maintenance

asthma treatment and self-reported exposure to known asthma triggers completed an online questionnaire; a subset completed a diary over 3-4 weeks. Information on asthma control (Asthma Control Test (TM) [ACT]), asthma triggers, frequency find more of exposure and behaviours in response or to avoid asthma triggers and the perceived impact on daily life was captured. A post-hoc analysis evaluated the impact of high trigger burden on the frequency of severe asthma exacerbations, hospitalisations and days lost at work/study. Results: A total of 1202 adults participated and 177 completed the diary. Asthma was uncontrolled for the majority (76%) of participants and most (52%) reported exposure to 6-15 asthma triggers. As trigger burden increased, behavioural changes to manage trigger exposure had a significantly increased impact on daily life (p<0.0001) and

job choice (p = 0.002). Participants reporting a high trigger burden (>16) were more likely to report uncontrolled asthma than those with a low trigger burden (1-5). Participants with a high trigger burden had previously experienced on average two more severe asthma attacks during a lifetime (p < 0.001), two more hospitalisations (p < 0.001) and 3.5 more missed days at work or study in the last year due to their asthma (p < 0.001) than those with a low trigger burden. Conclusions: Adults with asthma reporting a high trigger burden (>16 different triggers) experience more severe asthma attacks

than those reporting lower trigger burdens.”
“Cardiac catheterizations are among the X-ray procedures with the highest patient radiation dose and therefore are of great concern in pediatric settings. This study aimed to evaluate factors that selleckchem influence variability of X-ray exposure in children with congenital heart diseases during cardiac catheterization. The study included 107 children who underwent either diagnostic (n = 46) or interventional (n = 61) procedures. A custom-made sheet for patient and procedural characteristics was designed. Data were collected, and different correlations were applied to determine factors that influence variability of X-ray exposure. The flouroscopy time (FT) differed significantly between the diagnostic (8.9 +/- A 6.3 min) and intervention (12.8 +/- A 9.98 min) groups (P = 0.032). The mean dose-area product (DAP) differed significantly between the two groups (3.775 +/- A 2.5 Gy/cm(2) vs. 13.239 +/- A 15.

The sum of points allocated to all arteries constitutes the final

The sum of points allocated to all arteries constitutes the final OI value, ranging from 0 (normal finding) up to 240 (most severe PAD).

Verification of the method: Comparison of the OI method with the conventional API examined in over 100 renal patients revealed superior OI sensitivity in detection of PAD in the early stage and low-grade vessel infliction where the API Pevonedistat still remains within the normal range. OI can also be evaluated even when API is not measurable. Very good correspondence was found between the OI and angiography.

Conclusions: The OI method has now been introduced into routine use in the authors’ department. Based on over 1,500

OI evaluations performed so far, it can be recommended

as a simple, noninvasive, bedside tool for diagnosis of early as well as advanced PAD.”
“Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become a common option in Screening Library the management of morbid obesity. Although this procedure seems easier, many caveats remain, especially in terms of leakage. Other serious complications include strictures, bleeding, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Strictures are related to operative technique but also to healed leaks and fistulas. To our knowledge, the literature reports on the physiopathology and management of strictures after LSG are scarce.

A retrospective analysis of our database provided a total of 16 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of strictures. A comprehensive review of each case was done including their management.

Sixteen patients were treated laparoscopically for strictures. There were eight females (mean age, 40.6 years). Most common complaints were dysphagia (n = 14) and/or GERD (n = 8). Body Mass Index was 30.5 kg/m(2) +/- 9.3. Fourteen patients underwent a seromyotomy (SM) and two a wedge resection of the stenosis. After SM, morbidity included five leaks on the short term and five reoperations in the long-term. Of the 16 patients, 12 were treated satisfactorily, three required endoscopies and one had minimal GERD symptoms.


and stenosis can be managed by laparoscopic SB431542 approach with acceptable results. SM can be useful but carries a high complication rate. Accurate technique with parsimonious use of coagulation and possibly with the systematic use of an omental patch might lead to better results. The wedge resection of the stomach including the stricture was performed successfully in two cases. In addition, wedge resection was used secondarily in two other cases to address a complication of the seromyotomy.”
“Objective: To examine the relative susceptibility of cartilage and meniscus tissues to mechanical injury by applying a single, controlled overload and observing cellular, biochemical, and mechanical changes.

Six fatal serious adverse events in RIX4414 and 9 in placebo grou

Six fatal serious adverse events in RIX4414 and 9 in placebo groups were reported. At 2 months post-Dose 3, the seroconversion rates were 57.1% (95% CI: 34-78.2) in RIX4414 and 18.2% (95% CI: 5.2-40.3) in the placebo group. The mean absolute CD4(+) cell count, CD4(+) percentage, and HIV-1 viral load were CH5424802 concentration comparable in

both groups at screening and 2 months post-Dose 3. Rotavirus shedding peaked at Day 7 after Dose 1 of RIX4414 with prolonged shedding was observed in 1 infant only.

Conclusions: Three doses of RIX4414 vaccine was tolerated well by the South African HIV-positive infants. A satisfactory immune response was mounted without aggravating their immunologic or HIV condition.”
“Objectives: Due to the scarce data on the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among male-to-female trans-sex workers (TSW) and male sex workers (MSW) in Argentina, the present study aimed to estimate the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis selleck screening library B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Treponema pallidum. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis infections were tested among TSW.

Methods: Two

hundred and seventy-three TSW and 114 MSW were recruited by nongovernmental organizations. HIV incidence was estimated by STARHS (serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion). HPV and C. trachomatis infections were tested in anal cells from TSW.

Results: TSW showed significantly higher prevalences of HIV (34.1 vs. 11.4%), HBV (40.2 vs. 22.0%), and T.

pallidum (50.4 vs. 20.4%) see more than MSW. TSW tested positive for HPV in 111/114 cases and for C. trachomatis in 4/80 cases. Investigation of HBV, HCV, HIV, and T. pallidum co-infections showed that 72% of TSW and 39% of MSW had at least one STI. T. pallidum was the most frequent mono-infection. The estimated HIV incidence was 10.7 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8-17.7) for TSW and 2.3 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0-6.7) for MSW.

Conclusions: The high prevalence of STIs and the high incidence of HIV demonstrate the great vulnerability of these high-risk populations and indicate the urgent need for preventive strategies on intervention and facilitation of access to healthcare programs. (C) 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This report describes a fetus presenting with intrauterine tachycardia and hydrops fetalis. Soon after birth the neonate was noted to be in torsades de pointes that responded dramatically to medical management. Long QT syndrome (LQTS) was diagnosed on electrocardiogram obtained soon after birth. The prognosis is poor when LQTS presents in utero or during the first week of life. However, our infant did well with medical management and has remained free of arrhythmias at follow-up.

Neurologic impairment was noted in 13 patients pre-operative, six

Neurologic impairment was noted in 13 patients pre-operative, six patients achieved complete recovery, six patients achieved partial improvement, one patient did not have any improvement

at the last follow-up.

Triangular osteosynthesis is a relatively new fixation for vertical unstable sacral fractures, the fixation AZD2171 nmr is rigid, permits early full weight-bearing, and nerve decompression can be performed, which facilitates function recovery.”
“Background: Bispectral index (BIS) is a valuable tool for assessing the depth of sedation and guiding the administration of sedative drugs. We previously demonstrated the benefits of BIS-guided propofol sedation in patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy. Objective: buy SB202190 To examine the feasibility and safety profile of propofol sedation in patients undergoing medical thoracoscopy (MT). Methods: Patients undergoing MT for diagnostic evaluation or treatment of pleuropulmonary diseases were enrolled over a 2-year period. Nurses and chest physicians were trained by anesthetists to provide analgosedation, to detect and correct cardiopulmonary disturbances. The level of sedation was optimized individually by titrating the propofol infusion according to the BIS and clinical evaluation. Patients’ clinical data, procedure time, medications and any

adverse events were recorded. Results: Fifty-three patients (60% male) with a median age of 62 years (range 19-84 years) underwent MT. The operative procedure lasted a median time of 28 min (range 9-112 min). The median doses of anesthetic drugs were 145 mg of propofol (range

20-410 mg) and 84 mu g of fentanyl (range 0-225 mu g). Hemodynamic disturbances occurred in 39 patients (bradycardia n = 4, tachycardia n = 12, hypotension n = 34) and required drug administration in only 4 cases. Hypoxemic events (n = 4) resolved upon gentle patient stimulation (verbal command, chin lift, oral cannula). All patients could be discharged from the recovery unit within 105 min after the procedure. Conclusions: BIS-guided propofol sedation is a safe method that might replace midazolam sedation in MT and can be managed by well-trained nonanesthesiologist personnel. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Chance fractures are an uncommon spine injury learn more in the paediatric population. As such there is a relative paucity of evidence in the literature to guide management decisions. We present our single centre experience in the operative management of these injuries.

All patients presenting to a tertiary paediatric trauma centre between 2000 and 2008 were included. Retrospective analysis of clinical (SRS-22 and Oswestry) and radiological outcomes was undertaken.

Twelve patients underwent operative stabilization of a Chance type injury. Radiological and clinical outcome measures demonstrated excellent outcomes in the majority of patients with no significant complications.

CRB still occurred despite antibiotic prophylaxis in patients wit

CRB still occurred despite antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with NC-C. (C) 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“After a rigorous cleaning process, recycled food-grade poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), can be mixed with virgin PET resin in different concentrations and used for packaging of soft drinks. Therefore, it is important to have an experimental method 4-Hydroxytamoxifen to distinguish the presence of recycled polymer in a batch and to check its “”true quality.”"

One of the issues to be verified is the presence of inorganic contaminants due to the recycling process. X-ray fluorescence technique is one alternative for this kind of analysis. The results obtained in this work show that bottle-grade PET samples (PET-btg) Androgen Receptor inhibitor are made either via direct esterification or by a transesterification process. Samples that were subjected to thermo-mechanical processings (superclean processing, PET-btg blends processed in our laboratory

and soft drink PET packaging) present Fe K alpha emission lines with higher intensities than those presented by virgin bottle-grade PET. After applying principal component analysis, it can be concluded that Fe is an intrinsic contaminant after the recycling process, furnishing a way to indicate class separations of PET-btg. A calibration and validation partial least squares model was constructed to predict the weight percent of post-consumption bottle-grade PET in commercial PET samples. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117: 2993-3000, 2010″
“Purpose: To determine

the effectiveness, costs, and cost-effectiveness of strategies for the management of hepatocellular adenoma (HA) in women who are otherwise healthy.

Materials and Methods: A Markov model was developed to estimate the quality-adjusted life expectancy (in quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]), lifetime costs (in 2007 U. S. dollars), and net health benefits (QALY equivalent) c-Met inhibitor of surgery, transarterial embolization (TAE), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and watchful waiting. Model parameters and their distributions were derived from the literature and the hospital database.

Results: In patients with HA tumors suitable for RFA, RFA had the highest effectiveness (23.89 QALYs) and lowest costs ($2965). The treatment decision was sensitive to RFA-related mortality. In patients with tumors unsuitable for RFA, watchful waiting combined with TAE in cases of hemorrhage had the highest effectiveness (23.83 QALYs) and lowest costs ($8493). The treatment decision was sensitive to probability of tumor growth, probability of hemorrhage, and hemorrhage-related mortality.

Conclusion: According to the model results, the most favorable treatment strategy for patients with small HAs was RFA. In patients with HA unsuitable for RFA, watchful waiting was the optimal strategy.