The level of education, the

The level of education, the Imatinib Mesylate molecular weight type of insurance, and number of dental visits appeared as the main explanatory factors for subjects�� dental check-ups in the final logistic regression analysis (Table 4), which simultaneously controls for all factors included. The model indicated that those with a medium (OR=2.6) or high (OR=3.3) level of education, and with commercial insurance (OR=2.4) were more likely to go to a dentist for a check-up. The model fitted the data well (P=0.62). Table 4 Factors related to reporting that a check-up was the reason for most recent dental visit, as explained by means of a logistic regression model fitted to the data on adults reporting a dental visit (n=1019) in Tehran, Iran. DISCUSSION Only 16% of our respondents gave a check-up as the reason for their most recent dental visit.

In comparison with developed countries, this is far from the recommended way to use dental services. In Netherlands, almost all insured patients (92%), both public and private, reported that they had visited a dentist for a check-up within the past 12 months.20 High or moderate check-up rates have been reported for the USA, 78%,8 Finland, 57%,35 Australia, 53%37 and Japan, 46%.13 In the UK, 62% of adults report having had a dental check-up within the previous 12 months, the figures being clearly higher for those under the NHS (46%) compared to 14% for the non-NHS subjects.38 The behavior of visiting a dentist regularly for check-ups has its origins in one��s childhood. In addition, the health policy and the characteristics of the oral health care system in a community create and maintain circumstances favorable to such behavior.

One important and effective way to promote this behavior has been school-based dental care, where children visit a dentist for check-ups at regular intervals. Studies have shown that this preventive behavior seems to continue into adulthood.29,39�C40 Consequently, in those countries with higher rates for dental check-ups, school-based dental care programs have long dominated.41 In Iran, the public health services offer dental care to school children up to 12 years of age.42 The fact that this care does not include regular dental check-ups is probably reflected in the present adults�� check-up behavior as well. Those insurance health systems with prevention-oriented features and an obligation to regular dental check-ups have resulted into higher rates of check-ups.

7 The very low rates of checkups in the present study certainly reflect the nature of the health delivery system. Unfortunately, Iran has a treatment-oriented health care system where patients usually make a dental visit when they have trouble with their teeth or gums. The policies of either public or commercial insurance include no obligation to attend regular dental check-ups. In our study, having a commercial insurance had Batimastat a strong impact on attendance at dental checkups.

21 Tracing analysis Four profile tracings were available for each

21 Tracing analysis Four profile tracings were available for each patient: pre-operative, computerized prediction, manual prediction and actual post-operative. All tracings were digitized and entered into the computerized cephalometric software system PORDIOS (Purpose On Request Digitizer Input-Output System, Institute of Orthodontic Computer Sciences, Aarhus, Denmark), Gemcitabine injection which calculated all the cephalometric variables used in this study. In order to compare the computerized and manual prediction profiles and to test the prediction validity of the manual method (comparison between manually predicted and actual post-operative profiles) the author used the Profile Analysis cephalometric appraisal (included in the PORDIOS software), which incorporates variables from different well-known cephalometric analyses.

26 Profile Analysis includes 30 landmarks and 59 linear and angular variables.27 For each patient, 30 cephalometric landmarks where identified on the computerized prediction, manual prediction and actual post-treatment profile tracings (Figure 2). Identification of landmarks, tracings, superimpositions, digitizing of cephalograms and computer printouts were performed by the author. Figure 2 Dentoskeletal and soft tissue cephalometric landmarks used in the comparison of the prediction and post-treatment computer profile printouts. G=glabella; S=sella; N=nasion; N��=soft tissue nasion; P=porion; O=orbital; Ba=basion; Pn=pronasale; Pns=posterior … Statistical analysis Paired t-tests were used to determine any statistically significant differences (P < .

05) of cephalometric variables for both the computerized and manual soft tissue predictions; statistically significant differences between manually predicted and actual post-operative patient profile were also determined. Correction of type 1 error level was done by the Bonferroni method. Method error Eleven randomly selected manual prediction tracings were digitized twice. All 59 cephalometric variables of the Profile Analysis were compared by means of paired t-test. No statistically significant differences (P > .05) were found for any of the variables. The error of superimposition was estimated by performing double superimposition and double measurements for all patients. All measurements were analyzed by means of the method error test. No statistically significant differences were found.

The error of landmark displacement during computer simulation of jaw repositioning was estimated by using paired t-tests. No statistically significant differences (P >.05) were Dacomitinib found. The error of landmark identification and, digitizing of Dentofacial Planner prediction printouts and post-treatment tracings was estimated by digitizing twice the Dentofacial Planner predictions and by calculating error magnitude for all cephalometric variables. No statistically significant differences were found for any of the variables.

For example, current desensitizers include antibacterial componen

For example, current desensitizers include antibacterial components such as fluoride, triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, ethylene dianinetetraacetic acid, and glutaraldehyde. different A dentin primer incorporating methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide was potentially able to kill any bacteria.16,17 The agar well technique test is an accepted method for initially differentiating antibacterial activity between materials. Accordingly, even if the material contains less diffusive antibacterial components the substantive antibacterial activity is available. It is difficult to evaluate the antibacterial effects of desensitizer by a single test and more than one method needs to be used for screening the materials. Furthermore, in order to speculate on clinical effects, in situ tests which simulate the clinical situation are indispensable.

Dental plaque is a host-associated biofilm. In this study, some microorganisms of dental plaque were used to determine antibacterial effectiveness of several desensitizers. Mutans streptococci are found in highest numbers on teeth. These organisms have a strong affinity for hard surfaces, and do not usually appear in the mouth until after tooth eruption. S salivarious is only a minor component of dental plaque and not considered a significant opportunistic pathogen. However, S. salivarious and S. mutans have been found to produce root caries.18 S. fecalis have been recovered in low numbers from several oral sites. Some strains can include dental caries in gnotobiotic rats while others have been isolated from infected root canals and from periodontal pockets.

19 P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were colonized in pocket of the refractory chronic periodontitis patients.20 P. aeruginosa is resistant to tetracycline, penicillin G and erythromycin.19 Antibacterial effectiveness of the desensitizers except for UltraEZ and Cavity Sheath used in this study was obtained against the bacteria above. In a study by Emilson and Bergenholtz,21 it was suggested that the antibacterial nature of the Gluma and Denthesive cleanser might be related to the high content of ethylene dianinetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in the materials. The results of the present study also indicate that chemical composition of the desensitizers play an active role their antibacterial properties.

Micro Prime (MP) desensitizer is used for desensitizing Carfilzomib under dental cements or temporary, provisional, or final restorative materials, abrasions, cervical erosions, and preps. The antibacterial activity of MP desensitizer may be related to the chemical composition, which is benzalkonium chloride in nature. MP desensitizer had significant inhibitory effect on not only S. Mutans and P. aeruginosa but also on S. salivarious, S. faecalis. and S. aureus. This data supports the results of Duran and Sengun,14 who reported antibacterial effect of benzalkonium chloride containing Heath-Dent desensitizer.

1,11 Turssi et al12 implied that in

1,11 Turssi et al12 implied that in thoroughly comparison with minifilled composite, smaller particles might had been sheared off in nanocomposite and smaller voids might had been left on its surface, consequently more even and smoother surfaces had been created. On the other hand, studying the effect of these burs on different types of composite resin materials in further studies can be clinically beneficial. New instruments like burs out of a resin reinforced by zircon-rich glass fiber have been introduced for various uses and some of their properties were mentioned in the introduction part. They are introduced as non effective to soft tissues as they slide over them without cutting or grinding. This quality, and the fact that the instrument hardly heats up during use, makes the process virtually pain free, hence its easy acceptance by patients compared to other instruments and methods.

But again according to the manufacturer, they act as grinding instruments grinding layer after layer not as cutting burs. Therefore, to be efficient, they must be used at low speed with little pressure. High speed and strong pressure would only lead to faster wear, clog the spaces between the fiber sections and would lessen their abrasive power. In this study these burs were used for finishing of composite samples and a quantitative analysis of the finishing result was performed with a surface tester. Profilometer is a widespread method in evaluating the surface roughness of composite materials.

1,2,10,13�C18 It provides limited two-dimensional information, but an arithmetic average roughness can be calculated and used to represent various material-finishing surface combinations that assist clinicians in their treatment decisions.1 However, according to the same authors,1 the complex structure of a surface can not be fully characterized by the use of only surface roughness measurements. Therefore it is not appropriate to draw conclusions on the clinical suitability of a finishing instrument exclusively based on average roughness results. However, in combination with SEM analysis that permits an evaluation on the destructive potential of a finishing tool, more valid predictions of clinical performance can be made. In this study sample surfaces were evaluated also by means of SEM and results of profilometric measurements were largely confirmed by these analyses.

But sometimes there can be a difference between the profilometric results and SEM images. According to Tate and Powers,17 Dacomitinib this difference may be due to surface waviness produced by the treatments. The profilometer detects any waviness within the 0.25 mm cut-off, which would increase the Ra, however SEM can not distinguish overall surface texture. In this study the cut-off value was 0.8 mm. It can be expected that because of this cut-off value there is minimum difference between the profilometric evaluation and SEM analyses.

4,10,11 Autogenous bone has osteogenic potential, as it contains

4,10,11 Autogenous bone has osteogenic potential, as it contains cells that participate in osteogenesis.4,12 Moreover, autografts are bioabsorbable (they relatively are eventually replaced by the patient��s own bone),10 nonallergenic (they cause minimal tissue reaction without an immunological reaction),4,10 easy to handle, and not costly.13 Rapid revascularization occurs around autogenous bone graft particles, and the graft can release growth and differentiation factors.4,14 Although autogenous bone grafts present some disadvantages, such as the need for secondary surgical sites and resulting additional surgical morbidity,10,15 they can be minimized by using intraoral harvested bone.15 The use of the latter graft material is however limited by the restricted donor sites in the oral cavity for extensive grafting.

4,15 In order to support barrier membranes, prevent collapse, and promote bone formation, GTR has often been combined with the placement of bone grafts or bone graft substitutes. The effectiveness of the combined procedure for treating periodontal intraosseous defects has been evaluated in comparison with the use of GTR alone in many studies, which have shown contradictory results.16�C19 Some clinical studies have demonstrated better clinical results and bone fill with the combined procedure,16,19 whereas no significant difference was found between the treatments in other studies.17,18 Moreover, few experimental studies have reported successful alveolar ridge augmentation by combining autogenous mandibular bone grafts with nonresorbable and resorbable GTR membranes.

20,21 One clinical study has shown that the combination of an autogenous bone graft and a bioabsorbable GTR membrane is effective for treating three-wall periodontal defects.22 Data from both clinical and histological studies suggest that periodontal regeneration occurs following treatment with autogenous bone grafts.23�C25 However, a 12-month clinical study has shown that autogenous cancellous bone from the jaw compared with open flap debridement is not suitable for treating intrabony periodontal defects.26 Note-worthily, an autogenous cortical bone (ACB) graft, sourced from the surgical site adjacent to the intraosseous defect, is advantageous as it prevents the need for a second surgical site while treating intraosseous periodontal defects.

Further, the use of a physical barrier in addition to an ACB graft may enhance the regenerative outcome. The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the additional benefit of using GTR in conjunction with ACB grafting versus ACB grafting alone for the regenerative treatment of intraosseous periodontal defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS Experimental design Two different approaches to treat intraosseous periodontal defects were compared Drug_discovery by using a split-mouth, randomized, controlled design. Randomization was conducted before surgery according to the flip of a coin.

DISCUSSION Of our series of 73 patients hospitalized for treatmen

DISCUSSION Of our series of 73 patients hospitalized for treatment of malleolar fractures in a tertiary hospital, 63% were male. toward This finding is in direct contrast with that found by Baptista et al. 11 of only 30.0% of male patients in a study conducted with patients operated at another hospital, with similar characteristics in the same city. As the latter was carried out from 1989 to 1993, we believe that part of this difference can be explained by the time span of 18 years between both studies. However, the predominance of male subjects affected by malleolar fractures has also been found in studies of Santin et al. 12 and Schwartsmann et al. 14 with 62.8% and 54.0% respectively. It should be remembered that these two papers have analyzed only Danis-Weber type B malleolarfractures.

It is noteworthy in this study the low mean age of patients, 27.5 years old, with 56.2% of them standing in the age group below 40 years. We believe that the high turnout of traffic accidents, particularly motorcycle accidents, as a cause of fracture contributed to this fact. Debieux et al., 10 reported a study made in 2001-2002 in which they studied the locomotor injuries due to motorcycle accidents in S?o Paulo city and found that 79% of patients were under 28 years old. Our finding contrasts with the mean age of 39.0, 48.7, 43.3 and 34.5 years old from the work of Santin et al., 12 Schwartsmann et al, 14 Baptista et al. 11 and Tucci Neto et al., 13 respectively. The profile of patients with malleolar fractures treated at a tertiary hospital is well characterized when we analyze trauma mechanisms involved in the genesis of the fracture.

We found 54.8% (39 ankles) fractures caused by traffic accidents, and 21.9% (16 ankles) from polytraumatized patients, rates much higher than all other studies in the national literature. Santin et al. 12 described only one fracture due to motorcycle accident (2.9% of the total) and Tucci Neto et al. 13 had no patient from traffic accident. There is no doubt that Danis-Weber type B fractures evaluated in these two studies are typically caused by torsional trauma, and a lower incidence of fractures due to high-energy trauma was expected. Nevertheless, only 15.4% of patients in the study of Baptista et al. 11 were due to car accidents, and the same, as already mentioned, was conducted with patients from another major tertiary hospital.

There is no reference in the work of Baptista et al. 11 of fractures resulting from motorcycle accidents, whereas in our study 26.0% of all fractures resulted from this type of trauma. We believe that the changes Anacetrapib that occurred in the transport system of S?o Paulo city over the 18 years separating the two studies, with the continuous increase in the number of circulating motorcycles, and consequently in the number of accidents involving motorcyclists, are responsible for this change in the etiological pattern. Debieux et al.