At present, new detection techniques such as image-based detectio

At present, new detection techniques such as image-based detection techniques, have become an indispensable feature in modern industrial production. During mass industrial production operations, image-based detection ensures the consistency of product detection and helps implement data quality monitoring and process control, thereby increasing detection security, reliability, efficiency and precision, and reducing production costs. According to the different characteristics detected image-based detection applications are categorized as dimension measurement, surface quality detection, structural quality detection and system operating status monitoring [1]. Among these applications, dimension measurement and surface quality detection are the most commonly used.

Dimension measurement mainly involves characteristics of a target such as appearance, shape and position. It is also used in other fields, such as detection of discontinuous arc roundness in the field of machining [2], assemblage clearance in the field of automotive industry [3], and excursion and deflection of chips in the field of electronics, such as in printed circuit board (PCB) production [4]. Surface detection mainly involves detection of defects that impact product surface quality, such as fovea, scratches, cracks, air bladders, holes, wear, roughness, texture, and burrs, such as in steel plate surface defect detection [5], surface roughness measurement [6], tunnel wall surface defect detection [7], welding seam defect detection [8], fabric surface defect detection [9], and wood defect detection [10].

In this paper an image-based detection technique used for pivot bearing dimension measurement and surface defect detection is described. Illumination system design has a direct relationship with final imaging quality, and it is one of Cilengitide the keys for the success of any vision detection system. Improper Carfilzomib illumination may give rise to many problems; for example, overexposure may hide true defects, shadows may cause edge false drops, and non-uniform illumination may cause image segmentation difficulties. As a result, illumination quality can directly impact image analysis results [11].

transcripts induced by egg laying, as it repre sents a broad snap

transcripts induced by egg laying, as it repre sents a broad snapshot of the transcriptome and of the ac tivity in the different biochemical pathways in elm. We compared Unitrans distributions and gene ontology terms and identified enzyme differences among the treat ments especially with regard to egg induced changes in transcript abundances. Leaf beetle egg laying increases defense gene transcripts and decreases transcripts for photosynthesis Gene ontology analysis indicated a decrease in the tran scription level for those genes involved in photosynthesis in the egg and MeJA induced plants. Egg laying by herb ivorous insects can cause a reduction in photosynthetic activity, as has been shown for a tree species and a crop plant. Whether transcription of photosynthesis genes in egg free leaf parts is affected by eggs has not been studied so far.

There has been only one previous study showing a reduc tion of transcription of photosynthesis related genes after egg laying, however, in this study tissue situated directly underneath Cilengitide the egg masses without full access to light had been sampled. In our study, the material sampled for sequencing included leaf tissue immediately adjacent to the egg laying site as well as that some distance away. The analyzed tissue was not covered by eggs and had full access to light, and thus the response seen in photosynthesis related genes is not just a response to low light. Our results are consistent with that of other studies showing the reduc tion of photosynthesis related genes after MeJA treatment.

Further it appears that MeJA affected transcript levels in a manner similar to the insect treatments, which has also been observed in several other studies of plant responses to insect feeding damage. The tran scripts of MeJA treated plants showed GO term distri butions similar to the transcripts of EF treated plants. Both egg laying and JA treatments induce the indirect defenses of elms by stimulating the emission of volatiles that attract egg parasitoids. Nevertheless, these different experimental treatments induce volatile patterns that differ qualitatively and quantitatively. In contrast, only minor differences in the overall transcript levels were detected between un treated plants and plants with transferred eggs, indicat ing that the experimental imitation of the egg laying event does not cause any wholesale change in transcrip tional levels.

The GO analysis indicated an increase in the number and quantity of expressed genes involved in defense responses for egg induced plants. In a similar way, an in verse correlation between photosynthesis and defense related genes was observed in Arabidopsis thaliana after egg laying by Pieris brassicae, which might indicate a reallocation of resources from primary to secondary metabolism. However, in Brassica oleracea var. gemmi fera, only a few defense genes were found to respond to treatment of leaves with pierid eggs. Induced defense genes encode PR proteins, chitinases,

treatment with curcumin, disc cell cultures were either kept untr

treatment with curcumin, disc cell cultures were either kept untreated, treated with 5 ng ml IL 1B alone or co treated with 20 uM curcumin for 60 min. Nuclear e tracts were prepared by washing trypsin harvested cells with 10 mM HEPES, containing 1. 5 mM MgCl2, 10 mM KCl, 1 mM PMSF, 5 mM DTT and 0. 1% protease inhibitors. Then, cells were lysed with 0. 1% NP 40 for 5 min, centrifuged for 5 min at 10000 rpm and supernatants were discarded. Nuclear pellets were washed with 0. 1% NP 40 and lysed for 20 min with 20 mM HEPES, containing 1. 5 mM MgCl2, 420 mM NaCl, 25% glycerol, 1 mM PMSF and 5 mM DTT as well as protease inhibitors. After cen trifugation, protein content was measured by Bradford assay. Nuclear e tracts of untreated, IL 1B treated and IL 1B curcumin treated cells were separated on a SDS polyacrylamid gel and transferred to a PVDF membrane.

The membrane was incubated with a p65 antibody followed by incubation with an appropriate HRP secondary antibody GSK-3 before analyzing chemiluminescence. PARP was used as a loading control. The assay was performed on cells from three independent biopsies. Transcription factor assay for NF ��B In order to detect specific NF ��B DNA binding activity in nuclear e tracts, the NF ��B Transcription Factor Assay was used according to the protocol provided by the manufacturer. Briefly, a specific double stranded DNA sequence containing the NF ��B response element was immobilized to the wells of a 96 well plate. Nuclear e tracts were prepared as described above and added to the coated wells.

NF ��B contained in the added nuclear e tract bound specifically to the NF ��B response element and was detected by addition of the provided specific primary antibody direc ted against NF ��B. A secondary antibody conju gated with HRP was added, a colorimetric readout at 655 nm was performed and data was quantified as indi cated in the protocol. The assay was performed on cells from two independent biopsies. Western blot for MAP kinases Whole cell e tracts of untreated, IL 1B treated and IL 1B curcumin treated cells were prepared after 15 min to investigate whether curcu min acts on typical MAP kinases. Protein content was measured by Bradford assay and immunoblotting of whole cell e tracts was performed as described for p65, but membranes were incubated with antibodies recognizing either unphosphorylated or phosphorylated p38, ERK or JNK before adding an HRP labeled rabbit secondary antibody and analyzing chemiluminescence.

Tubulin was used as a loading con trol. The assay was performed on samples from five in dependent e periments. Statistical analysis All quantitative data was statistically analyzed using a Mann Whitney U test on the SPSS statistics software and differences were consid ered statistically significant at p 0. 05. Results Cytoto icity of curcuma e tracts and curcumin Cytoto icity of curcuma e tracts and curcumin was determined after 6, 18 and 30 hours using the MTT assay. For the curcuma DMSO e tract, cell viability w

01�� A sensor composed of a commercial plug-and-play webcam and

01��. A sensor composed of a commercial plug-and-play webcam and a polarized filter is presented in [15]. It proved that the image-based Sun position sensor has high immunity to different weather conditions and achieved a tracking accuracy of 0.1��.The stability of the solar tracking system is a key factor to obtain the maximum electric power from a PV system. We have developed an image-based Sun position sensor to increase the stability and accuracy of Sun-tracking. The image-based Sun position sensor consists of a self-design reflecting Cassegrain telescope and webcam. The reflecting telescope can enlarge and adjust Sun pictures to an adequate size to achieve optimum tracking accuracy and view angle. This article describes the development of an image-based Sun position sensor and the algorithm for how to point at the Sun precisely by using image processing.

The paper is organized as follows: In Section 2, the design and analysis of a reflecting Cassegrain telescope are described. In Section 3, the control strategies of Sun-tracking are examined. In Section 4, the experimental results that prove the good performance of our image-based tracking system are presented. Finally, some conclusions are offered in Section 5.2.?Design and Analysis of a Reflecting Cassegrain TelescopeObtaining a clear photo with a large enough Sun image is the first and determining step for accurately estimating the solar center. If the Sun image taken in the photo is too small, due to the digitizing effects, it may introduce uncharacteristic noise and errors to the image that become difficult to filter out to estimate the solar center.

A reflecting type Cassegrain telescope [16,17] can reflect and enlarge Sun images. To weaken the Sun luminosity and shorten the telescope length, we put in a right angle prism to change the light direction and Brefeldin_A allocate a suitable eyepiece to get an enlarged Sun image and also a clear outline. We thus developed a Cassegrain type telescope with a right angle and eyepiece as shown in Figure 1.Figure 1.A reflecting type Cassegrain telescope�Coptical structure.In the plot, there are two concave mirrors and a right prism at the right side, and a convex mirror at the left side, as well as an eyepiece above the right prism. The two concave mirrors reflect light to convex mirror, and then the light reflected by the convex mirror goes to the right prism.

Subsequently, the light is refracted to the eyepiece. Finally, the light goes through the eyepiece and focuses on somewhere above the eyepiece.The OSLO? tool [18] is used to analyze the characteristics of the self-designed telescope. In assessing performance of the telescope, as shown in Figure 2, modulation transfer functions (MTF) give an idea about how much contrast a telescope design will be able to show [19].Figure 2.MTF analysis of a reflecting type Cassegrain telescope.

This ground subsidence over the Nobi Plain became well known fol

This ground subsidence over the Nobi Plain became well known following the Ise-wan Typhoon (Typhoon Vera) in autumn 1959. In its Annual Report in 2000, the Land Subsidence Survey Committee of the Three Prefectures in Tokai Region reported that, after the 1959 typhoon, a gradual expansion of the subsidence area peaking in 1973�C1974 was observed, followed by a slowing trend in subsidence activity since then, more likely because of such factors as the strengthening of regulations concerning groundwater pumping [6]. We have to note here that very few researches have been performed on this subject so far, notwithstanding the remarkable ground subsidence still observed to occur in some areas of this Plain, even nowadays, or the rising grounds found in many other parts.

These changes in ground level conditions are likely to imperil the foundations of life-sustaining infrastructures in this area, including damages to built up structures, especially in the case of tsunamis or sea level increase due to the global warming. All these facts are a great source of concern for residents in the region [7].Ground leveling, the traditional method for observing ground subsidence, makes it possible to directly measure ground subsidence with quite high precision. However, this method remains crippled with many issues, among which the shortage in manpower, the volume of labor and the cost required for performing the measurements, the cost for the maintenance and management of observational points, as well as the inability to get observation information for those areas not included in the leveling routes and ground points network [8,9].

The analysis on ground changes by InSAR can be expected as in recent Cilengitide years, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technology [10�C12] has been more and more in use to estimate with high precision the spatial distribution of changes in the Earth’s crust surface height and the amount of such changes at each specific location [13�C19]. This new approach can be considered as a complementary method to by traditional standard measurements for monitoring ground subsidence. More specifically, ground level subsidence reported in relationship with the overexploitation of ground waters has been analyzed using InSAR techniques in many parts of the World. This is the case of Lisbon in Portugal [20], the Pingtung Plain [11] and the Chousui River Alluvial Fan [21] in Taiwan, the Campania Region [22] and Bologna [23] in Italy, as well as Kolkata City in India [24]. It is expected the InSAR techniques, as well as its more recent variants such as the PSInSAR [25], will become powerful complementary, or even substitute, methods to traditional ground subsidence observation using leveling and other methodologies used so far.

The rotational invariance properties of both the transmit and rec

The rotational invariance properties of both the transmit and receive arrays are investigated in [9], then the DOD and DOA are determined through two independent 1D ESPRITs. However, an additional pairing operation is required. In [10], the relationship between two 1D ESPRIT is investigated. In [11], the real-valued ESPRIT (unitary ESPRIT) is proposed to estimate DOD and DOA. It has lower computational complexity and slightly better angle estimation performance compared with ESPRIT [9,10]. A multi-singular value decomposition (multi-SVD) method is presented for DOD and DOA estimation in [12]. It provides better angle estimation than the traditional eigenvalue decomposition (EVD)/SVD method. The above schemes can only be used for angle estimation in the presence of spatial Gaussian white noise.

In [13], an ESPRIT-based method for bistatic MIMO radar DOD and DOA estimation is proposed, which can eliminate spatial colored noise. However, it is only effective for three transmit antennas configuration. By dividing the transmit array into two subarrays, a combined ESPRIT and SVD of the cross-correlation matrix method (denoted as Chen’s method) is presented in [14], which is effective for MIMO radar with three or more transmit antennas to eliminate the influence of spatial colored noise.However, in the subspace methods [13,14], the received signals are stacked into a special structure matrix, ignoring the multidimensional structure inherent in the received signals after matched filters.

In this paper, a tensor-based frame is considered for the received signals, which exploits the multidimensional inherent structure and a novel tensor-based subspace for bistatic MIMO radar in the presence of spatial colored noise is proposed. Firstly, utilizing the multidimensional structure inherent in the received signals after matched filters, the received signals can be packed into a third-order measurement tensor. Then, the measurement tensor is divided into two sub-tensors, and a cross-covariance tensor is formulated to eliminate the spatial colored noise by exploiting the orthogonal characteristic of matched filters. Finally, the higher-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD) technique is employed to formulate the signal subspace. The DOD and DOA are estimated through the ESPRIT algorithm, which are paired automatically. Theoretical analysis and simulation results validate that the proposed method suppresses spatial colored noise more efficiently and provides better angle estimation performance than Chen’s method, the ESPRIT algorithm and the Cilengitide multi-SVD method, especially at the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region.The rest of the paper is organized as follows. The tensor basics and signal model are presented in Section 2.

This characteristic is useful in hazardous applications when con

This characteristic is useful in hazardous applications when continuous monitoring of gases is necessary [10].In order to increase the reactivity of CNTs, metal nanoparticles (NPs) are frequently incorporated along their structures, acting as active sites during the interaction between target analytes and CNTs’ walls [10�C12]. The interest of using metal NPs is due to their high catalytic activity, adsorption capacity and efficient charge transfer [13]. Metal NPs are highly sensitive to changes in their environment, providing a wide range of reactivity towards different gases. The selectivity and sensitivity of sensors can be tuned using several types of NPs because their reactivity depends on the element constituting the NPs.

The key concept in CNTs decorated with nanoparticles (CNTs-NP) is that upon adsorption of a target molecule, a significant amount of charge is donated or accepted by the NPs, and as a result the electron transport in the CNTs is affected and this change is easily measureable [10].Ozone is a principal cause of photochemical smog and atmospheric contamination. It is harmful to human health; breathing ozone-containing air reduces lung function, aggravating asthma and other respiratory conditions [14]. Furthermore, high ozone levels can also harm sensitive vegetation in forested ecosystems [14]. The standard method for ozone detection is based on a UV adsorption method [15]. Accuracy and high sensitivity are reported for this method, however, it presents drawbacks such as complexity of the apparatus with high cost and large detector size.

Due to their compact size, adsorption capacity, wide range of reactivity of several gases, simplicity in fabrication, operation in harsh environmental and at high temperatures sensors base CNT-nanoparticles are an alternative to replace the conventional method for detection of ozone.Few works have reported the detection of ozone gas molecules Brefeldin_A with CNTs used as the sensitive material [15�C18]. Park et al. [15] showed the response of a sensor using single wall CNT (SWCNT) networks; their sensor was sensitive to ozone down to 50 ppb with a rapid response as well as a fast recovery. Wongwiriyapan et al. [16] reported ozone sensitivity when using SWCNT networks directly grown on a conventional sensor substrate. Ozone was detected down to 6 ppb at room temperature while operating with a fast response.

Ghaddab et al. [17] compared the gas sensing properties between three types of materials: SWCNT, SnO2 and SWCNT/SnO2 hybrid materials. Among these, the latter were significantly more responsive to ozone and ammonia than pure SnO2 or SWCNTs. The detection limit at room temperature was evaluated to be lower than 20 ppb.To the best of our knowledge, although Pd decorated CNTs have been used for hydrogen detection [19,20], it has not been used for ozone sensing before.

This paper presents a reconstruction method which aims at generat

This paper presents a reconstruction method which aims at generating photorealistic building facade models by efficient fusion of terrestrial laser data and close range images. Section 2 first gives an overview of the presented method. Then different stages of the reconstruction process are elaborated from Section 3 to 5. Section 3 explains the registration algorithms for referencing the laser data space and the image space. Section 4 explains how images can be used to refine the building models generated from laser points. The optimal texturing strategies are given in Section 5. Section 6 examines the applicability of the method with two test cases. Some conclusions are drawn in the final section.2.?The Reconstruction Approach2.1.

OverviewLine extraction from images is very accurate, while laser points are more suitable for extracting planar features. The mutual independent advantages motivate this combined reconstruction method. The overall process of the presented method is illustrated in Figure 1. In general, a building facade’s general structure is established with the planar features extracted from laser data, then image features are introduced to refine the model details. In the preprocessing stage, the exterior orientations of the images are calculated using a series of semi-automated operations. Then the planar features are extracted from terrestrial laser points and modeled as an initial polyhedron model using a previous method presented in [5].

Because of the limitations of modeling algorithm, the initial model is still not accurate for texturing purpose, therefore significant line features extracted from images are compared with the initial model’s edges, and necessary refinements are made according to the image lines. Finally in the texturing stage, textures of different model faces are selected automatically from multiple images to ensure the optimal visibility. Texture errors caused by occlusions in front of a wall are also removed by analyzing the locations of the wall, the occlusions and the camera position.Figure 1.Building reconstruction process.2.2. Previous WorkOur previous work of building facade reconstruction from terrestrial laser data is briefly introduced here because of its strong relevance for this paper. The approach first defines several important building features (wall, window, door, roof, and protrusion) based on knowledge about building facades Carfilzomib [5]. Then the laser point cloud is segmented into planar segments using the region growing algorithm [10], and each segment is compared with building feature constraints to determine which feature this segment represents.

These acrylic microspheres were hydrophobic in character with a

These acrylic microspheres were hydrophobic in character with a surface modified acryloxysuccinimide functionality (poly-nBA-NAS) for the immobilization of the enzyme. They were synthesized via photopolymerization. As the microspheres are hydrophobic, the AOX immobilization will be confined to the surface of the spheres, thus allowing the enzymatic reaction of AOX and formaldehyde to occur at the surface. With a large surface area of the microsphere to be use as a potetiometric biosensor membrane and favorable surface diffusion conditions, the analytical performance of the formaldehyde biosensor can be improved.2.?Experimental Section2.1.

Materials2,2-Dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (DMPP), sodium tetrakis [3,5-bis (trifluro-triethyl) phenyl] borate (NaTFPB), hydrogen ionophore I (tridodecylamine), sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4) were obtained from Fluka.

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), acetic acid, acetyl acetone from Systerm. In addition, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), poly(HEMA) commercial, 2-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA), alcohol oxidase enzyme (AOX) from Hansenula polymorpha, bovine serum albumin (BSA), Bradford reagent, all were from Sigma Aldrich. N-acryloxysuccinimide (NAS) and tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (Tris-HCl) were purchased from Acros Organics and Duchefa Biochemie, respectively.

Formaldehyde solution was obtained from BDH, n-butyl acrylate (nBA) from Merck, hydrochloride acid 37 % (HCl) from Riedel-de Haen, di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4) from Hamburg Chemical, ammonium acetate from Scharlau while both Bactor agar and 1,4-dioxane were from Ajax Chemicals.

All chemicals were of analytical grade and used without further purification. Standard buffer solutions were prepared with deionized Brefeldin_A water.2.2. Synthesis of Poly(nBA-NAS) MicrospheresPoly(nBA-NAS) microspheres were prepared via photopolymerization in the form of an emulsion. A mixture of 4 mL of nBA monomers, 0.09 g DMPP, 400 ��L HDDA, 0.1 g SDS, 10 mg NAS and 10 mL deionized water was prepared in a sample bottle. The resulting emulsion turned milky white after sonication for 5 min. The milky solution was then photocured for 300 s under continuous purging with nitrogen gas in an ultraviolet exposure unit (R.

S. Ltd.) of 15 Watt light intensity Drug_discovery at a wavelength of 350 nm. Poly(nBA-NAS) microspheres were isolated by centrifugation (4,000 rpm, KUBOTA) for 8 min and finally washed a few times with 0.01 M sodium phosphate buffer solution (pH 8.0). Clean poly(nBA-NAS) microspheres were dried at room temperature and kept at 4 ��C when not in use.2.3.

This period is crucial since treatment by reactivators such as ob

This period is crucial since treatment by reactivators such as obidoxime and partially HI-6 are effective for paraoxon [18,19]. After that, no treatment is possible due to dealkylation of organophosphate inside reactive site i.e. aging [20,21]. Activity of blood cholinesterases is considered as important marker obviously of intoxication by organophosphates. The primary effect of blood AChE, as part of the cell signaling system, is different to the one from neurosynapses. In particular, AChE is associated on macrophages with nicotinic cholinergic receptors inhibiting TNF synthesis and modulating inflammation [35,36]. On the other side, a common role of BChE in the body is not still fully recognized. BChE is considered as part of the body’s defense mechanisms, able to hydrolyzing toxic compounds such as cocaine [37].

2.1. Mortality and symptomsMortality is one final effect of toxins. The experiment was planned in way to cover a full spectrum of mortality. Rats used in experiments were Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries sacrificed within thirty minutes after intoxication. This short period of paraoxon incidence should ensure that any observations are due to the acute toxicity and cholinergic crisis phases, rather than other mechanisms such as apoptosis arising later [22].No mortality was observed up to a dose of 170 nmol/kg of body weight (b.wt.). Above 170 nmol, the mortality rose abruptly. A dose of 250 nmol/kg b.wt. of paraoxon was found to be the LD50 for the given time interval. Doubling the LD50 dose up to 500 nmol/kg b.wt. of paraoxon led to overall mortality within ten minutes.

Symptomatic manifestations of intoxication were observed starting at the 170 nmol/kg b.wt. dose. Some animals exposed to this dose manifested tonic-clonic seizures, but the symptomatic manifestations caused Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries by the 170 nmol/kg b.wt. dose was slight in comparison with a 250 nmol/kg b.wt. dose. The latter caused strong abrupt tonic-clonic seizures within 5 minutes and overall deterioration of shape. The deaths occurred after quite a long period: 20 minutes. The highest tested dose was 500 nmol/kg b.wt. of paraoxon per animal. Tonic-clonic seizures were of similar level as observed at a dose of 250 nmol/kg b.wt, however animals in Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries this cohort manifested tonic-clonic seizures within 5 minutes and died within 10 minutes after paraoxon intoxication. No other specific symptoms were clearly visible.

Every exitus was confirmed by proven cardiac arrest and persisting mydriasis. The symptomatic manifestation observed during experiment correlates with the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries expected from human cases [23].2.1. Cholinesterase activityCholinesterase activity was assayed in the way described AV-951 previously Tofacitinib citrate [17]. Faraday’s laws of electrolysis were used to calculate cholinesterase activity. Current measured in the reaction mixture grew linearly for approximately 5 minutes. The total electric charge flowed through the system was estimated from the area under the curve. The total flowed charge was simply recalculated to give enzyme activity.