For conditions with unequal amplitudes, the arm moving at the smaller amplitude was predicted to be more strongly affected by the contralateral Bucladesine clinical trial arm than vice Versa. This prediction was based on neurophysiological considerations and the HKB model of coupled oscillators. Participants performed rhythmic bimanual forearm movements at prescribed amplitude relations. After a brief mechanical perturbation of one arm, the relaxation process back to the initial coordination pattern was examined. This analysis focused on phase adaptations in the unperturbed arm, as these reflect the degree to which the movements of this arm were affected by the coupling influences stemming from the contralateral
(perturbed) arm. The thus obtained index of coupling (IC) reflected the relative contribution of the unperturbed arm to the relaxation process. As predicted IC was larger when the perturbed arm moved at a larger amplitude than
did the unperturbed arm, indicating that coupling strength scaled with movement amplitude. This result was discussed in relation to previous research regarding sources of asymmetry in coupling strength and the effects of amplitude disparity on interlimb coordination. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Central motor conduction time (CMCT) is usually abnormally prolonged in leg muscles of patients with pure hereditary spastic paraparesis (PHSP). One consequence of such abnormality should be an abnormal timing in the modulation of segmental reflexes, which might be more relevant for the pathophysiology of spasticity-related gait disturbances than just the CMCT TPCA-1 order delay. We examined the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the soleus H reflex in 13 control subjects and 11 PHSP patients using a conditioning (TMS) and test (H reflex) paradigm. Interstimulus interval (ISI) was 0-100 ms in steps of 10 ms. The
amplitude of the H reflex at each interval was expressed as percentage of the control H reflex and the conditioned curves were compared between control subjects and patients. In control subjects, TMS-induced facilitation of the H reflex with two well-defined phases: early (ISIs 10 and 20 ms) and late (ISIs 70-90 ms). In patients, the LY3039478 research buy early phase of facilitation was significantly reduced, while there was facilitation at 40 ms that was not present in control subjects. However, neither the characteristics of the MEP nor the differential modulation of the H reflex correlated significantly with clinical measures of motor dysfunction. Our results indicate an abnormal effect of TMS on the H reflex in PHSP patients. This suggests that the excitability of interneurons and soleus motoneurons is not modified in tune with the arrival of descending inputs. Desynchronization of the descending volley may contribute to both the lack of early facilitation and the presence of abnormal facilitatory phases. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.