(C) 2013 The Authors

(C) 2013 The Authors. PD0332991 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Among the set of mammalian DNA polymerases, DNA polymerases belonging to the X and Y families have a special place. The majority of these enzymes are involved in repair, including base excision repair and non-homologous end joining. Some of them play a crucial role during the specific process which is referred to as translesion synthesis (TLS). TLS intends

for the cell surviving during the replication of damaged DNA templates. Additionally, specific activities of TLS-polymerases have to be useful for repair of double-stranded clustered lesions: if the synthesis is proceeded via base excision repair process, the role of DNA polymerases beta or lambda will be important. In this review we discussed the biochemical properties and functional relevance of X family DNA polymerases beta and lambda. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a poorly differentiated squamous cancer characterized by rearrangement of the NUT gene. Research

advances have provided opportunities for targeted therapy in NMC, yet the clinical features of this rare disease have not been systematically characterized. We BMS-777607 inhibitor report on a large population of such patients to identify the disease characteristics and treatments, correlate them with outcome, and to consider clinical recommendations.\n\nExperimental Design: A clinical database was established using retrospective demographic and outcomes data available on all known cases of NMC. Questionnaires were completed by treating physicians. β-Nicotinamide Pathologic, demographic, and clinical variables were assessed for 63 patients, the largest cohort of patients with NMC studied to date. Outcome data from 54 patients were available for survival analyses.\n\nResults: The diagnosis of NMC has increased annually

since 2007. Since 2009, there has been an observed increase in the age at diagnosis (P < 0.05). Geographic distribution of patients with NMC has been concentrated in the United States (n = 41, 65%). The median overall survival for patients with NMC was 6.7 months. The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 9% with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1% to 17% [1-year PFS 15% (5-24%) and 2-year overall survival (OS) was 19% with a 95% CI of 7%-31% (1-year OS: 30% (27-34%)]. Multivariate analysis suggested that extent of surgical resection and initial radiotherapy were independent predictors of PFS and OS. Notably, no chemotherapeutic regimen was associated with improved outcome.\n\nConclusions: NMC portends a poor prognosis among all squamous cell neoplasms and seems to be frequently unrecognized.

The downregulation of SR-A by curcumin was via ubiquitinproteasom

The downregulation of SR-A by curcumin was via ubiquitinproteasomecalpain-mediated proteolysis. Furthermore, the curcumin-induced upregulation of ABCA1 was mainly through calmodulin-liver X receptor

a (LXRa)-dependent transcriptional regulation. Curcumin administration modulated the expression of SR-A, ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-BI in aortas and retarded atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice. Conclusion Our findings suggest that inhibition of SR-A-mediated oxLDL uptake and promotion of ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux are two crucial events in suppression of cholesterol accumulation by curcumin in the transformation of macrophage foam cells.”
“Platelets and the lungs have an intimate relationship. Platelets are anucleate mammalian blood cells that continuously GSK461364 cost circulate through pulmonary vessels and that have major effector activities in hemostasis and inflammation. The lungs are reservoirs for megakaryocytes, the requisite precursor cell in thrombopoiesis,

which is the intricate process Cediranib by which platelets are generated. Platelets contribute to basal barrier integrity of the alveolar capillaries, which selectively restricts the transfer of water, proteins, and red blood cells out of the vessels. Platelets also contribute to pulmonary vascular repair. Although platelets bolster hemostatic and inflammatory defense of the healthy lung, experimental evidence and clinical evidence indicate that these blood cells are effectors of injury in a variety of pulmonary disorders and syndromes. Newly discovered biological capacities of platelets are being explored in the context of lung defense, disease, and remodeling.”
“Bonetto A, Aydogdu T, Jin X, Zhang Z, Zhan R, Puzis L, Koniaris LG, Zimmers TA. JAK/STAT3 pathway inhibition blocks skeletal muscle wasting downstream of IL-6 and in experimental cancer cachexia. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 303: Cyclosporin A cell line E410-E421, 2012. First published June 5, 2012; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00039.2012.-Cachexia, the metabolic dysregulation leading to

sustained loss of muscle and adipose tissue, is a devastating complication of cancer and other chronic diseases. Interleukin-6 and related cytokines are associated with muscle wasting in clinical and experimental cachexia, although the mechanisms by which they might induce muscle wasting are unknown. One pathway activated strongly by IL-6 family ligands is the JAK/STAT3 pathway, the function of which has not been evaluated in regulation of skeletal muscle mass. Recently, we showed that skeletal muscle STAT3 phosphorylation, nuclear localization, and target gene expression are activated in C26 cancer cachexia, a model with high IL-6 family ligands. Here, we report that STAT3 activation is a common feature of muscle wasting, activated in muscle by IL-6 in vivo and in vitro and by different types of cancer and sterile sepsis.

Postoperative complications included six biliary complications, f

Postoperative complications included six biliary complications, four of which required surgical revision and all of which occurred within 5

months of transplantation, and two vascular complications, including one early hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) and one late HAT, one of which required retransplantation. Five left lobe recipients required re-exploration, and one patient developed small-for-size syndrome following SLT, which resolved with conservative measures. ConclusionsTrue right/left ex vivoSLT remains a viable option for facilitating the expansion of the adult cadaver donor pool and allows for excellent patient and graft survival. Postoperative find more morbidity remains high, especially in recipients of the left lobe graft, and must be balanced with the benefits to be derived from transplant.”
“This paper presents the analysis of residual stress origin and its effect

on rivet failure in the self-piercing riveting joints. The FEM method was used to analyze the residual stress distribution in the rivet. The effect of maximum joint forming force value on its maximum strength and residual stress distribution in the rivet was described. selleck By increasing the SSPR rivet forming force the joints strength was increased. However, the pressing process with high value of the forming force is high-energy and accumulates significant residual stresses in the rivet. The maximum axial stress increased by 14% when the forming forces increased from 32 kN to 36 kN (increase by 12.5%). The theoretical considerations on safety coefficient determination for the rivet material were also presented. The fracture mechanics of elastic-plastic model body was characterized by using the energy state equations. The numerical calculations of J-integral, for two cases of maximum forming force in selected grooves in the rivet,

were also presented. The energy release intensity in the stress concentrator (grooves on the rivet) was higher for the higher value of the forming force. The J-integral value for the forming force of 36 kN increased by 48% in comparison to the forming force value of 32 kN. (C) selleck compound 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Studies on the nature and function of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP) over the past 10 years have demonstrated the importance of IDPs in normal cellular function. Although many proteins predicted to be IDPs have been experimentally characterized on an individual basis, the conservation of disorder between homologous proteins from different organisms has not been fully studied. We now demonstrate that the FlgM protein from the thermophile Aquifex aeolicus exhibits a more ordered conformation at 20 degrees C than the previously characterized FlgM protein from Salmonella typhimurium. FlgM is an inhibitor of the RNA transcription factor sigma(28), which is involved in regulation of the late-stage genes involved in flagella synthesis. Previous work has shown that the S.

(C) 2012 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“It has been re

(C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“It has been reported that mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells show multilineage differentiation potential similar to that

observed in mesenchymal stem cells. Since DFAT cells can be prepared from a small quantity of adipose tissue, they could facilitate cell-based therapies in small companion animals such as cats. The present study examined whether multipotent DFAT cells can be generated from feline adipose tissue, and the properties of DFAT cells were compared with those of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). DFAT cells and ASCs were prepared from the floating mature adipocyte fraction and the stromal vascular fraction, respectively, of collagenase-digested feline omental adipose tissue. Epacadostat price selleck compound Both cell types were evaluated for growth kinetics, colony-forming unit fibroblast (CFU-F) frequency, immunophenotypic properties, and multilineage differentiation potential.

DFAT cells and ASCs could be generated from approximately 1 g of adipose tissue and were grown and subcultured on laminin-coated dishes. The frequency of CFU-Fs in DFAT cells (35.8%) was significantly higher than that in ASCs (20.8%) at passage 1 (P1). DFAT cells and ASCs displayed similar immunophenotypes (CD44(+), CD90(+), CD105(+), CD14(-), CD34(-) and CD45(-)). Alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells were learn more readily detected in ASCs (15.2 +/- 7.2%) but were rare in DFAT cells (2.2 +/- 3.2%) at P1. Both cell types exhibited adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and smooth muscle cell differentiation potential in vitro. In conclusion, feline DFAT cells exhibited similar properties to ASCs but displayed higher CPU-F frequency and greater homogeneity. DFAT cells, like ASCs, may be an attractive source for cell-based therapies in cats. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) mediating the cellular uptake of many endogenous and exogenous chemicals, including

drugs in clinical use, play an important role in drug absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism. At present, more and more cardiovascular agents have been found as substrates of OATPs. Multiple drugs are often used in combination for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is necessary to review the role of OATPs in pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions of cardiovascular agents. This review summarizes the findings of recent studies, as well as information obtained from several databases: ISI Web of Knowledge, SciFinder and PubMed. It provides a baseline on the level of evidence available on the role of OATPs in pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions of cardiovascular agents, and should be of help to those intending to research further on these topics.

But, its actual preventive effect on seroma formation might be re

But, its actual preventive effect on seroma formation might be related to diminished inflammatory response.”
“Kinetics of spermatogonia as well as localization in niches have been described in rodents, but rarely in large animals or in species of economical interest. In this regard, and envisioning the possibility of spermatogonial transplantation from donkeys (Equus asinus) to mules (Equus mulus mulus), many variables that may contribute for an enhanced understanding of the spermatogonial biology in donkeys were investigated. Testes from five adult donkeys were routinely processed for high-resolution

light microscopy. Donkey seminiferous epithelium can be divided in XII stages based on the development of the acrosomal system. In addition, spermatogonial morphology and morphometric analysis were performed allowing the characterization of two groups of spermatogonia: undifferentiated (A(und)) and differentiating (A(1), A(2), A(3), B(1) eFT-508 clinical trial and B(2)). A(und) spermatogonia were present along all XII stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle of this species, whereas differentiating spermatogonia were only at specific stages. Number of differentiating BMS-345541 mw spermatogonia gradually increased as the cycle progressed, despite the apparent rigid regulation of the balance between mitosis and apoptosis

throughout the spermatogenic process. Understanding of spermatogonial biology and kinetics in donkeys, revealed that type A(und) spermatogonia Duvelisib are located in specific microenvironments, the spermatogonial niches. The present results enhance understanding of spermatogonial biology in donkeys providing information about subtypes, morphology, number and mitosis/apoptosis along the seminiferous epithelium cycle. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier

B.V.”
“AIM: To investigate the differential expression of leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) in gastric cancer tissues and its significance related to tumor growth and spread. METHODS: Formalin-fixed biopsy specimens of intestinal metaplasia (n = 90), dysplasia (n = 53), gastric adenocarcinoma (n = 180), metastases in lymph nodes and the liver (n = 15), and lesion-adjacent normal gastric mucosa (controls; n = 145) were obtained for analysis from the Peking University Cancer Hospital’s Department of Pathology and Gastrointestinal Surgery tissue archives (January 2003 to December 2011). The biopsied patients’ demographic and clinicopathologic data were retrieved from the hospital’s medical records database. Each specimen was subjected to histopathological typing to classify the tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage and to immunohistochemistry staining to detect the expression of the cancer stem cell marker LGR5. The intergroup differences in LGR5 expression were assessed by Spearman’s rank correlation analysis, and the relationship between LGR5 expression level and the patients’ clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated by the. 2 test or Fisher’s exact test.

This functional pathway might be important for relating motor and

This functional pathway might be important for relating motor and sensory information used by the listener https://www.selleckchem.com/products/fosbretabulin-disodium-combretastatin-a-4-phosphate-disodium-ca4p-disodium.html to identify speech sounds. Further, its development might reflect changes in the mechanisms that relate visual speech information to articulatory speech representations through experience

producing and perceiving speech. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Evidence is mounting of the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in insulin resistance, diabetes and associated complications. This review aims to provide an overview of the effects of insulin resistance on mitochondrial function in several tissues. We consider the pathogenesis of insulin resistance from a mitochondrial perspective

and contemplate potential beneficial effects of strategies aimed at modulating mitochondrial function in insulin resistance, including insulin and insulin-sensitizing drugs, antioxidants, and selectively targeting antioxidants to mitochondria.”
“Curcumin is a polyphenol Kinase Inhibitor Library obtained from the plant Curcuma longa (called turmeric) that displays several pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antitumoral activity, but clinical use has been limited by its poor solubility in water and, consequently, minimal systemic bioavailability. We have therefore formulated the drug into nanocarrier systems in an attempt to improve its therapeutic properties. This study evaluates the effect of intraperitoneally administered nanocapsules containing curcumin on subcutaneous melanoma in mice inoculated with B16-F10 cells, and on the cytotoxicity activity against B16-F10 cells in vitro. FK228 Phagocytic uptake of formulations was also evaluated upon incubation with macrophage J774 cells by fluorescence microscopy. Lipid and polymeric nanocapsules were prepared by the phase inversion and nanoprecipitation methods, respectively. The uptake of the lipid nanocapsules

prepared using Solutol HS15 was significantly reduced in J774 cells. Curcumin, as free drug or as drug-loaded nanocapsules, was administrated at a dose of 6 mg/kg twice a week for 21 days. Free drug and curcumin-loaded nanocapsules significantly reduced tumor volume (P < 0.05 vs. control), but no difference was found in the antitumor activity displayed by lipid and polymeric nanocapsules. This assumption was supported by the in vitro study, in which free curcumin as well as loaded into nanocapsules caused significant reduction of cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.”
“Taheebo, the purple inner bark of the Bignoniaceae tree Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb, which is found in tropical rain forests in northeastern Brazil, has been used as a traditional medicine for various diseases for more than 1,500 years.

Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determi

Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by means of FIRMS, NMR, and quantum chemical CD calculations. Urnucratin A (1) was found to be active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus

faecium, and Streptococcus pyogenes with MIC values of 2, 1, and 0.5 mu g/mL, respectively.”
“Cbl is an adaptor protein and an E3 ligase that plays both positive and negative roles in several signaling pathways that affect various cellular functions. Tyrosine 737 is unique to Cbl and is phosphorylated by Syk and Src family kinases. Phosphorylated Cbl Tyr(737) creates a binding site for the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K, which also plays an important role in the regulation SHP099 ic50 of bone resorption by osteoclasts. To investigate the role of Cbl-PI3K interaction in bone homeostasis, we examined the knock-in mice (Cbl(YF/YF)) in which the PI3K binding site in Cbl is ablated due to the mutation in the regulatory tyrosine. We report that in CblYF/YF mice, despite increased numbers of osteoclasts, bone volume is increased due to defective osteoclast function. Additionally, in ex vivo cultures, mature CblYF/YF osteoclasts showed an increased ability to survive in the presence of RANKL due to delayed onset of apoptosis. RANKL-mediated signaling is perturbed in CblYF/YF osteoclasts, and most interestingly, AKT phosphorylation is up-regulated, suggesting

that the lack of PI3K sequestration by Cbl results in increased survival and decreased bone resorption. Cumulatively, these in vivo and in vitro results IPI-145 price show that, on one hand, binding of Cbl to PI3K negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation, GSK1838705A purchase survival, and signaling events (e.g. AKT phosphorylation), whereas on the other hand it positively influences osteoclast function.”
“Alpha1A-adrenoceptors are important regulators of prostatic smooth muscle tone and an important target for therapy of lower urinary tract symptoms. The function of heptahelical transmembrane

receptors such as adrenoceptors can be regulated by beta-arrestin-2, which may bind to receptors besides G proteins. Here, we investigated the expression and alpha 1A-adrenoceptor binding of beta-arrestin-2 in the human prostate.\n\nHuman prostatic tissues were obtained from patients undergoing radical prostatectomies. The expression of beta-arrestin-2 and alpha 1A-adrenoceptors was studied by RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. The protein-protein interaction between alpha 1A-adrenoceptors and beta-arrestin-2 was investigated by coimmunoprecipitation.\n\nRT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of beta-arrestin-2 mRNA and protein in the human prostate. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated beta-arrestin-2 expression in smooth muscle and stromal cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that alpha 1A-adrenoceptors in the human prostate may interact with beta-arrestin-2.

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“Background: Fo

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Following the discovery of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in LBH589 datasheet 1989, screening of all blood donors for antibodies became mandatory in Sweden as of 1 January 1992. Methods: Serum samples were collected from patients who had received a blood transfusion in the period prior to 1992 in western Sweden. The prevalence

of HCV infection was assessed by antibody screening. Results: Of 13,573 screening serologies, 124 patients (0.9%) had antibodies against HCV; 113 (0.8%) had detectable HCV RNA indicating an ongoing infection. Ninety-one (73%) were female, of whom 32 had been transfused in conjunction with childbirth. A review of the 32 liver biopsy reports AS1842856 available showed that 2 patients had cirrhosis and an additional 9 patients had periportal or septal fibrosis. Conclusion: A considerable portion of screened patients had an ongoing HCV infection and were eligible for antiviral treatment. Look-back screening

for HCV among recipients of blood transfusions prior to 1992 is meaningful and should include women transfused in childbirth.”
“The title compound, C(14)H(9)Br(3)N(2)O(2)center dot CH(4)O, was prepared by the reaction of 3,5-dibromo-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 3-bromobenzohydrazide in methanol. The asymmetric unit of the crystal consists of a Schiff base molecule and a methanol molecule of crystallization. The dihedral

angle between the two benzene rings is 5.5 (2)degrees. An intramolecular O-H center dot center dot center dot N hydrogen bond is observed. In the crystal XMU-MP-1 supplier structure, pairs of adjacent Schiff base molecules are linked by two methanol molecules through intermolecular N-H center dot center dot center dot O and O-H center dot center dot center dot O hydrogen bonds.”
“P>Aims\n\nTo determine the effect of sickle cell trait on measurement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) in African American patients with diabetes mellitus.\n\nMethods\n\nThis is a retrospective study including 885 outpatients who underwent HbA(1c) testing. Medical record review and sickle cell trait determinations based on the HbA(1c) assay were performed in African American participants. The relationship between HbA(1c) and serum glucose measurements was analysed.\n\nResults\n\nData were obtained from 385 AA (109 with SCT, 22 with haemoglobin C trait and 254 without haemoglobinopathy) and 500 European American patients. In a model created through multivariate repeated-effects regression, the relationship between HbA(1c) and simultaneous serum glucose did not differ between African American subjects with and without the sickle cell trait, but differed between African American subjects without the sickle cell trait and European Americans (P = 0.0002).

The modified fibers underwent fast photocrosslinking under UV-irr

The modified fibers underwent fast photocrosslinking under UV-irradiation as demonstrated by light absorbance and fluorescence measurements. see more Thus, our results proved that the modified fibers exhibited light-responsive properties and can potentially be used for the manufacture of smart bio-based materials. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved,”
“Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a parasitic disease endemic in many countries, and dogs present as the major natural reservoir of the parasite, Leishmania chagasi (syn. L. infantum). Biomarkers in the canine immune system is an important technique in the course of developing vaccines and treatment strategies against CVL

New methodologies for studying the immune response of dogs during Leishmania infectijon and after receiving vaccines and treatments against CVL would be useful. In this context, we used peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)

from healthy dogs to evaluate procedures related to (i) establishment of in vitro conditions of monocytes differentiated into macrophages infected with L. chagasi and (ii) purification procedures of T-cell subsets (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) using microbeads. Our data demonstrated that after 5 days of differentiation, macrophages were able to induce significant phagocytic and microbicidal activity after L chagasi infection and also showed increased frequency of parasitism and a higher parasite load. Although N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) levels presented similar levels of macrophage culture and L. chagasi infection, a progressive find more decrease Tariquidar datasheet in myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels was a hallmark over 5 days of culture. High purity levels ( bigger than 90%) of CD4 and CD8 T cells were obtained on a magnetic separation column. We concluded that monocytes differentiated into macrophages at 5 days and displayed an intermediate frequency of parasitism

and parasite load 72 h after L. chagasi infection. Furthermore, the purification system using canine T-lymphocyte subsets obtained after 5 days of monocyte differentiation proved efficient for CD4 or CD8 T-cell purification ( bigger than = 90%). The in vitro analysis using L. chagasi-infected macrophages and purified T cells presented a prospective methodology that could be incorporated in CVL vaccine and treatment studies that aim to analyze the microbicidal potential induced by specific CD4(+) and/or CD8(+) T cells. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Two novel asymmetrical diarylethenes with an imidazole-containing substituent have been synthesized. The two diarylethenes exhibited favorable photochromism and functioned as fluorescence switches upon alternating ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. These two compounds could also serve as highly selective ‘naked-eyes’ colorimetric sensors for Cu2+.

All rights reserved “
“Background: To describe the technique

All rights reserved.”
“Background: To describe the technique for the removal of bulky fibrin in persistent traumatic full hyphema by using anterior chamber maintainer (ACM).\n\nMethods: The ACM was used to reform and maintain the anterior chamber, and to flush out the clotted blood. The ACM cannula was inserted at the 6 o’clock position, and then a 2-mm-width contra lateral

limbal incision was made. Slight pressure applied at the posterior lip of the incision facilitated the evacuation of the clot from the anterior chamber. Visible adherence of the clot was separated AG-881 order using the Sinskey hook, and firm fibrosis between fibrin and intraocular structure was cut by Vannas scissor.\n\nResults: All liquified blood was removed through corneal incision. Any clot caught at the incision was removed by cutting the clot into smaller fragments with a Vannas scissor.\n\nConclusion: ACM is a safer and affordable alternative compared to Simcoe’s cannula or vitrectomy in the removal of persistent traumatic hyphema.”
“Reaumuria soongorica (Pall.) Maxim., a resurrection semi-shrub, LY3023414 mouse is a typical constructive and dominant species in desert ecosystems in northwestern China. However, the gene expression characteristics of R. soongorica under drought stress

have not been elucidated. Digital gene expression analysis was performed using Illumina technique to investigate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) this website between control and PEG-treated samples of R. soongorica. A total of 212,338 and 211,052 distinct tags were detected in the control and PEG-treated libraries, respectively. A total of 1,325 genes were identified as DEGs, 379 (28.6%) of which were

up-regulated and 946 (71.4%) were down-regulated in response to drought stress. Functional annotation analysis identified numerous drought-inducible genes with various functions in response to drought stress. A number of regulatory proteins, functional proteins, and proteins induced by other stress factors in R. soongorica were identified. Alteration in the regulatory proteins (transcription factors and protein kinase) may be involved in signal transduction. Functional proteins, including flavonoid biosynthetic proteins, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, small heat shock proteins (sHSP), and aquaporin and proline transporter may play protective roles in response to drought stress. Flavonoids, LEA proteins and sHSP function as reactive oxygen species scavenger or molecular chaperone. Aquaporin and proline transporters regulate the distribution of water and proline throughout the whole plant. The tolerance ability of R. soongorica may be gained through effective signal transduction and enhanced protection of functional proteins to reestablish cellular homeostasis. DEGs obtained in this study may provide useful insights to help further understand the drought-tolerant mechanism of R. soongorica.