Copyright (c) 2012 S Karger AG, Basel”

Copyright (c) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The role of inosine at the mammalian neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has not been clearly defined.

Moreover, inosine was classically considered to be the inactive metabolite of adenosine. Hence, we investigated the effect of inosine on spontaneous and evoked ACh release, the mechanism underlying its modulatory action and the receptor type and signal transduction pathway SB203580 involved.\n\nEXPERIMENTAL APPROACH End-plate potentials (EPPs) and miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs) were recorded from the mouse phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparations using conventional intracellular electrophysiological techniques.\n\nKEY RESULTS Inosine (100 mu M) reduced MEPP frequency and the amplitude and quantal content of EPPs; effects inhibited

by the selective A(3) receptor antagonist MRS-1191. Immunohistochemical assays confirmed the presence of A3 receptors at mammalian NMJ. The voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) blocker Cd2+, the removal of extracellular Ca2+ and the L-type and P/Q-type VGCC antagonists, nitrendipine and omega-agatoxin IVA, respectively, all prevented inosine-induced inhibition. In the absence of endogenous adenosine, inosine decreased the hypertonic response. The effects of inosine on ACh release were prevented by the G(i/o) protein inhibitor N-ethylmaleimide, PKC antagonist chelerytrine and calmodulin antagonist W-7, but not by PKA antagonists, H-89 and KT-5720, or the inhibitor of CCI-779 CaMKII KN-62.\n\nCONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Our results suggest that, at motor nerve terminals, inosine induces presynaptic inhibition of spontaneous and evoked ACh release by activating A(3) receptors through a mechanism that involves L-type and P/Q-type VGCCs and the secretory machinery downstream of calcium influx. A(3) receptors appear to be coupled Alvocidib solubility dmso to G(i/o) protein. PKC and calmodulin may be involved in these effects of inosine.”
“Background: Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a serious clinical symptom,

occurring as the end result of all kinds of chronic kidney disease and its pathophysiological mechanism is not yet well understood. We investigated the metabolic profiling of urine samples from CRF model rats to find potential disease biomarkers and research pathology of CRF.\n\nMethods: An animal model of CRF was produced by adenine. Metabolic profiling of the urine was performed by using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC Q-TOF/MS). Acquired data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) for differentiating the CRF and the normal control groups. Potential biomarkers were screened by using S-plot and were identified by the accurate mass, isotopic pattern and MSE fragments information obtained from UPLC Q-TOF/MS analysis.

aureus All isolates of S aureus underwent antibiotic susceptibi

aureus. All isolates of S. aureus underwent antibiotic susceptibility testing and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and binary typing, including determination of

Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). The nasal carriage rate of methicillin-susceptible selleck kinase inhibitor S. aureus (MSSA) was 202/699 (28%), a rate similar to that found in other community-based nasal carriage studies. According to multivariate analysis, nasal carriage of S. aureus was associated with male sex, young adult age group and Caucasian ethnicity. Only two study isolates (one MSSA and one CA-MRSA) carried PVL. The nasal carriage rate of MRSA was low, at 5/699 (0.7%), and only two study participants (0.3%) had CA-MRSA strains. CA-MRSA is an emerging cause of infection in southeast Queensland, but as yet the incidence of carriage of CA-MRSA in the general community is low.”
“Aim: We carried out an association study between T-cell receptor beta polymorphism (TCRB) and endometriosis to investigate the difference in allelic frequency. Polymorphisms in T-cell receptor genes can provide important information for the study of the immune response and autoimmune Prexasertib chemical structure diseases; indeed, rs1800907, a very common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the TCRB, has been extensively studied in autoimmune diseases in the 1990s using Southern blot analysis and

more recently polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. An autoimmune etiology

for endometriosis has been strongly suggested for the presence of antibodies against endometrium, high rates of autoimmune disorders and associated atopic diseases.\n\nMaterial and Methods: We investigated 70 patients with endometriosis and 120 controls. DNA of patients and controls was studied by PCR followed by restriction digestion and sequencing to determine genotype and presence of linkage disequilibrium (LD). Statistical see more analysis was carried out using STATA Routine GENHW (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA) for estimation of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and test power calculation. The difference of allele distribution between patients and controls was calculated according to Pearson’s and Fisher’s tests. Test power for the estimation of linkage disequilibrium is low (0.16).\n\nResults: We performed an association study of the SNP rs1800907 of TCRB between 70 patients with endometriosis and 120 controls, and did not find any significant difference (chi(2) = 0.27 and P = 0.87). Fisher’s test confirmed a P-value of 0.872.\n\nConclusion: Our study does not suggest an evidential and major involvement of TCRB in the pathogenesis of endometriosis in an Italian population in a small case control study.”
“OBJECT: To study the stability offered by a clamping lumbar interspinous anchor (ISA) for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF).

SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Gloucestershire Hospitals N

SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cheltenham, United Kingdom.

DESIGN: Database study.

METHODS: Hypothetical prediction errors were retrospectively click here calculated on prospectively collected data extracted from electronic medical records using manufacturers’ and optimized IOL constants with Hoffer Q, Holladay 1, and SRK/T formulas

for 2 IOLs. The acceptable IOL-constant optimization error margins, personalized IOL constants for individual surgeons, and minimum sample sizes for IOL-constant optimization were evaluated.

RESULTS: Optimization of IOL constants reduced the mean absolute errors from 0.66 diopters (D) and 0.52 D to 0.40 D and 0.42 D for the Sofport AO IOL and Akreos Fit IOL, respectively. The percentage of eyes within +/- 0.25 D, +/- 0.50 D, and +/- 1.00 D of target refraction improved from for both IOL models. The IOL-constant errors exceeding 0.09 for the Hoffer Q, 0.09 for the Holladay 1, and 0.15 for the SRK/T produced inferior outcomes. Differences in personalized IOL constants between most surgeons were clinically insignificant. Calculating IOL constants to within 0.06, 0.06, and 0.10 for the Hoffer Q, Holladay 1, and SRK/T, respectively, required 148 to 257 eyes.

CONCLUSIONS: Optimizing IOL constants for IOLMaster biometry substantially

improved refractive outcomes, far exceeding any additional benefit of personalizing IOL constants for individual surgeons.”
“2,7-di-tert-butylpyrene was oxidized to 2,7-di-tert-butylpyrene-4,5,9,10-tetraone. Selleck PR-171 The latter through condensation reactions with vicinal diamine such as 4,5-diaminophthalonitrile produced heterocyclic monomer, 2,7-di-tert-butyl pyrene[4,5][9,10]bisquinoxaline-6,7-dinitrile, which was cyclo-tetramerized to the corresponding tetra[2,3-(1,4-diaza-6,6-di-tert-butylphenanthreno)[4,5]phthalocyanine]-based network polymer (2H-Pc), and tetra [2,3-(1,4-diaza-6,6-di-tert-butylphenanthreno)[4,5]phthalo-cyaninato metal II-based network polymers (M-Pc, M= Co, Ni, Zn, or Cu). Elemental analytical results, IR and NMR spectral data

of the new prepared molecules are consistent with their assigned formulations. Molecular masses HSP990 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor and metal contents of the synthesized polymers proved to be of high molecular masses which confirm the efficiency of tetramerization polymerization and complexation reactions. The dielectric constant (epsilon’) and dielectric loss tangent (tan delta) were studied as a function of temperature and frequency. The detailed analysis of the results showed that the dielectric dispersion consists of both dipolar and interfacial polarization. Measurements of ac conductivity as a function of frequency at different temperatures revealed that the nonoverlapping small polaron tunneling is the most suitable mechanism for ac conduction behavior. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Correlating optical events and electrical response through native

Correlating optical events and electrical response through native defects would find scope in assessing figure of merit and sensitivity while making rectifying nanojunctions and single electron devices. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3631792]“
“From December 2003 through January 2004, the Phnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Centre, Cambodia, was affected by the highly pathogenic influenza virus (H5N1). Birds from 26 species died. Influenza virus subtype H5N1 was detected in 6 of 7 species tested. Cats from 5 of 7 species were probably infected; none died.”
“Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) has been widely used to

determine the FloryHuggins parameters, chi, between solutes (probes) and polymers. In a previous study Raf kinase assay a multiparameter acidbase model, which included dispersion, polarity, acidity, and basicity components, was used to correlate the Flory-Huggins Nocodazole solubility dmso parameters of a series

of probes obtained from IGC measurement. Using IGC data from two polymers the parameters of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and polyepichlorohydrin (PECH) were calculated and used to estimate the interaction parameter between them. In the present study a modified linear method was proposed to obtain the parameter differences between the two polymers directly from their chromatographic retention data. This method offers a more convenient assessment on the mutual miscibility between the two polymers. This method is also related to the linear Nutlin-3 ic50 solvation energy relationship (LESR). Correlations between the descriptors of LESR and the parameters in this acidbase model are discussed. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Neurologic complications from varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation are rare. In this article, we describe a previously immunized child who developed herpes

zoster with meningitis. Vaccine strain of VZV was recovered from a skin swab and the cerebrospinal fluid. Reactivation of the vaccine strain of VZV should be recognized as a potential cause of meningitis in children.”
“We used piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) to study the dc bias field-induced domain structure of the (001) oriented single crystals of 0.77PbMg(1/3)Nb(2/3)O(3)-0.23PbSc(1/2)Nb(1/2)O(3) relaxor. In the as-grown state, no polarization contrast was observed due to the average cubic symmetry of the crystal. Upon application of a dc bias applied via a PFM tip, a stable complex domain pattern, corresponding to a hedgehog-type topological defect, appeared on the surface of the crystal. The shape of these domains depended on the magnitude of the field. If the field was below a threshold, the domains possessed a cylindrical form. Above the threshold, the border between domains became close to a straight line.

Physicians need to be aware that coronary aneurysms can develop i

Physicians need to be aware that coronary aneurysms can develop in patients with antecedent KD even after regression or in adulthood.”
“The role of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) in prostate cancer, in which patients and to what extent it should be performed, remains a controversial

topic. Preoperative diagnostic methods are more or Less unreliable for lymph node staging and PLND click here remains the most reliable and accurate method. PLND is indicated in all patients with a PSA value >10 ng/ml and in those with a PSA <10 ng/ml. if the Gleason score is >= 7. If PLND is performed then it should always include the tissue along the external iliac vein, in the obturator fossa and on either side of the internal. iliac vessels, up to where the ureter crosses the common iliac vessels. In conjunction with RRP extended PLND may increase staging accuracy, influence decision making with respect to adjuvant therapy and possibly impact outcome. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of metabolic, inflammatory, and apoptotic pathways. Adiponectin improves insulin sensitivity, promotes vascular health, and increases cell survival. These observations suggest a potential therapeutic role for adiponectin in Prexasertib mouse the treatment of diabetes

mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. However, biologically active

recombinant adiponectin proteins are inherently unstable and difficult to produce, thus making it a challenge for both research and clinical development. One main challenge relates to the existence of adiponectin as homo-/hetero-trimers, and complexes containing multiple adiponectin trimer units, in plasma. The underlying mechanism for adiponectin function is also not completely understood. Two receptors for adiponectin (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) have been cloned, and activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) has been reported to be downstream of the receptors. Recent findings suggest that adiponectin potently stimulates ceramidase activity via activation GW4869 mouse of its two known receptors, therefore connecting sphingolipid metabolism to adiponectin functions and providing a potential mechanism explaining the different actions of adiponectin. Interestingly, a new report also identified a pathway involving adiponectin and insulin receptor substrate 2, which is independent of the ADIPOR1/ADIPOR2 pathway. In this manuscript, we will review previous approaches and challenges in exploring adiponectin-based therapeutics. In particular, we will review some of the recent developments in engineering adiponectin proteins as well as potential therapeutic opportunities offered by recently elucidated adiponectin-mediated signaling pathways.

(C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“Obesity and la

(C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Obesity and lack of physical activity are an increasing problem. In addition to common barriers to physical activity, people with epilepsy also face fear of exercise-induced seizures, medication side effects, and, often, confusing advice regarding the safety of exercise. To explore barriers faced by people with epilepsy, we mailed a survey to 412 adult patients with epilepsy from an epilepsy center in Kansas. Survey items assessed patients’ exercise

habits, attitudes regarding exercise, and barriers to exercise. Forty-seven percent completed the survey. Most respondents reported that they did exercise, though most did so 3 or fewer days per week and at light intensity. Respondents who reported seizures as a barrier to exercise did not exercise with less frequency or intensity than those who did not report seizures as a barrier, selleck chemicals llc but these respondents reported greater fear of seizures. Patient-specific education about

the benefits check details of exercise needs to be initiated by physicians. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The theanine content of the leaves of 27 species or varieties of Theaceae plants was investigated. Theanine was present in 21 species or varieties, but in much lower amounts (< 0.2-mu mol/g fresh weight) than the quantity detected in Camellia sinensis var. sinensis. The major free amino acids in leaves of four species belonging to the genera Schima and

Eurya, were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glutamine, asparagine, alanine and proline and content of these amino acids is similar to or higher than theanine. Accumulation of free amino acids in these plants was generally lower than in C. sinensis var. sinensis. The biosynthetic activity of theanine, assessed by the incorporation of radioactivity from [(14)C]ethylamine, was detected in seedlings of two species of Schima. The theanine biosynthetic activity in roots was higher than that of leaves. this website (C) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Fluid motion induced on the surface of 100 MHz focused surface acoustic wave (F-SAW) devices with concentric interdigital transducers (IDTs) based on Y-cut Z-propagating LiNbO(3) substrate was investigated using three-dimensional bidirectionally coupled finite element fluid-structure interaction models. Acoustic streaming velocity fields and induced forces for the F-SAW device are compared with those for a SAW device with uniform IDTs (conventional SAW). Both, qualitative and quantitative differences in the simulation derived functional parameters, such as device displacements amplitudes, fluid velocity, and streaming forces, are observed between the F-SAW and conventional SAW device. While the conventional SAW shows maximum fluid recirculation near input IDTs, the region of maximum recirculation is concentrated near the focal point of the F-SAW device.

Western blot analysis showed decreased expression of cell cycle p

Western blot analysis showed decreased expression of cell cycle proteins that promote cell cycle progression, including cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and cyclin D1, and increased the expression of proteins that inhibit cell cycle progression, including p27. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis showed that TSL-1 Napabucasin solubility dmso induced H661 cell apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that TSL-1 reduced the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2, and degraded the DNA repair protein, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. TSL-1

shows potential as a novel therapeutic agent or for use as an adjuvant for treating human lung large cell carcinoma.”
“Admixture occurs when individuals from parental populations that have been isolated for hundreds of generations form a new hybrid population. Currently, interest in measuring biogeographic ancestry has

spread from anthropology to forensic sciences, direct-to-consumers personal genomics, and civil rights issues of minorities, and it is critical for genetic epidemiology studies of admixed populations. Vorinostat nmr Markers with highly differentiated frequencies among human populations are informative of ancestry and are called ancestry informative markers (AIMs). For tri-hybrid Latin American populations, ancestry information is required for Africans, Europeans and Native Americans. We developed two multiplex panels of AIMs (for 14 SNPs) to be genotyped by two mini-sequencing reactions, suitable for investigators of medium-small laboratories to estimate admixture of Latin American populations. We tested the performance of these AIMs by comparing results obtained with our 14 AIMs with those obtained using 108 AIMs genotyped in the same individuals, for which DNA samples is available for other investigators. We emphasize that this type of comparison should be made when new admixture/population structure

panels are developed. At the population level, our 14 AIMs were useful to estimate European admixture, though they overestimated African admixture and underestimated Native American admixture. Combined with more AIMs, our panel could be used to infer individual see more admixture. We used our panel to infer the pattern of admixture in two urban populations (Montes Claros and Manhuacu) of the State of Minas Gerais (southeastern Brazil), obtaining a snapshot of their genetic structure in the context of their demographic history.”
“Current drugs used in the management of African Trypanosomiasis are toxic and can encounter parasite resistance, hence the need for urgent, less toxic and readily available alternative source of trypanocide. The effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of the stem bark of Faidherbia albida in albino rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei strain Lafia/CT/66/ NITR was evaluated. The oral acute toxicity of the extract was determined in rats.

A good preclinical model should mirror most of these criteria In

A good preclinical model should mirror most of these criteria. In the last decades several models have been published using different approaches to break hepatic tolerance this website and induce liver damage. The induction of a chronic hepatitis similar to the human disease remained a difficult challenge. Nevertheless, these models helped to get more information about the aspects of AIH induction and liver immunology. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“The biological mechanisms associated with the development and rupture of intracranial aneurysms are not fully understood. To clarify

the role of VEGF and the related receptors in the pathophysiology of aneurysm, immunostaining for VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 was performed on specimens from six unruptured aneurysms and on two specimens of normal arteries wall as a control. The results were correlated with NO concentration of CSF collected during surgery from 8 patients affected by unruptured aneurysms and in 11 control patients. The immunohistochemical

data showed a different pattern of VEGF/VEGFR1/VEGFR2 in aneurysms when compared with control. The results of this preliminary study suggest an imbalance of VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, and the Selleck Bafilomycin A1 interaction of VEGF and NO in the pathophysiology of unruptured aneurysms. Our data support the hypothesis of aneurysm formation associated with a loss of expression of VEGFR1, moderate expression of VEGFR2 and high concentration of nitrate.”
“Aims: The aims of the present study were to determine the direct effect of DRD2 and DRD4, as well as their interaction with parenting (i.e. rejection, overprotection and emotional warmth), on the development of regular alcohol and cannabis use in 1192 Dutch adolescents from the general population.

Methods: click here Information was obtained by self-report questionnaires. Perceived rejection, overprotection and emotional warmth were assessed at age 10-12. Regular alcohol and cannabis use were determined at age 15-18 and defined as the consumption of alcohol on 10 or more occasions in the past four weeks, and the use of cannabis on 4 or more occasions in

the past four weeks. Models were adjusted for age, sex, parental alcohol or cannabis use, and externalizing behavior.

Results: Carrying the A1 allele of the DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism, or the 7 repeat DRD4, was not directly related to regular alcohol or cannabis use. In addition, adolescent carriers of these genetic risk markers were not more susceptible to the influence of less optimal parenting. Main effects for parenting indicated that overprotection increased the risk of regular alcohol use, whereas the risk of cannabis use was enhanced by parental rejection and buffered by emotional warmth.

Conclusions: Our findings do not support an association between DRD2/DRD4 and regular alcohol and cannabis use in adolescents.

Thus, study participants

had significantly less accurate

Thus, study participants

had significantly less accurate health beliefs about HCV than about HIV. Targeting inaccuracies might improve public health interventions to foster healthier behaviours and better hepatitis C outcomes.”
“A prospective >25-year follow-up study evaluated the outcome of patients hospitalized for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection at <24 months of age. Questionnaires were sent to 51 study subjects and to population controls. Self-reported asthma was present in 30% of the former RSV patients, compared with 3.8% of controls. In adjusted analyses, RSV hospitalization was an independent risk factor LDC000067 supplier of adulthood asthma.”
“Aim: The aim of the study was to identify patients with transitory elevation

(TE) of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) using neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) and to compare them with patients with 21-OHD.

Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with high 17-OHP levels NCT-501 purchase detected during newborn screening in Madrid, Spain.

Results: 17-OHP levels were significantly higher in the 33 21-OHD patients, who tended to present hyponatraemia and hyperkalemia. The TE-17-OHP group was characterized by normal initial physical examination (88.8% vs. 39.4%), lower gestational age and a higher number of stressful perinatal factors. 17-OHP levels decreased spontaneously in this group. Molecular diagnosis allowed us to discard the most frequent mutations associated with 21-OHD.

Conclusions: Newborns with slightly increased 17-OHP levels and normal results for physical examination, acid-base equilibrium, glycemia, electrolytes and perinatal stress factors should be carefully evaluated. Decisions on treatment should be postponed until these results are available.”
“Significant liver disease has been reported in chronic hepatitis B patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) but most studies performed biopsies on selected patients only. STAT inhibitor The aims of this study were to determine the rate of liver biopsy, characteristics

of patients who underwent a biopsy and factors associated with significant liver disease in a cohort of such patients. Records of patients with chronic hepatitis B during a 10-year period were reviewed. Significant liver disease was defined as Knodell HAI >= 7 and/or Ishak fibrosis >= 3. Of 743 patients, 55.7% were Asian, 56.4% were men, and the mean age was 43.1 years. One hundred and ninety-three (26%) had undergone a biopsy. Biopsied patients were more likely to be men, HBeAg positive, and had lower platelet and higher alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, ALT and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA. Significant liver disease was observed in 20% of patients who had normal ALT at presentation, 14% of those with normal ALT at the time of biopsy and in none of the patients with persistently normal ALT. Patients with normal ALT who were biopsied had higher HBV DNA and higher ALT than those not biopsied.

Larger prospective clinical investigations are required to confir

Larger prospective clinical investigations are required to confirm whether RAD is independently associated with increased HLA-G expression. J Heart Lung Transplant 2009;28:1193-7. Copyright (C) 2009 by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.”
“Spinal cord injury is one of the most devastating conditions that affects the central nervous system. It can lead to permanent disability and there are around two million people affected worldwide. After injury, accumulation

of myelin debris and formation of an inhibitory glial scar at the site of injury leads to a physical and chemical barrier that blocks axonal growth and regeneration. The mammalian central nervous system thus has a limited intrinsic ability to repair itself after injury. To improve axonal

outgrowth and promote functional recovery, it is essential to identify the various intrinsic and extrinsic factors controlling regeneration and navigation of axons within the inhibitory environment of the central nervous system. Recent advances in spinal cord research have opened new avenues for the exploration of potential targets for repairing the cord and improving functional recovery after trauma. Here, we discuss some of the important key molecules that could be harnessed for repairing spinal cord selleck compound injury.”
“Objective-To define scintigraphic, physical examination, and scapular ultrasonographic findings consistent with bone fragility syndrome (BFS) in horses; develop indices of BFS severity; and assess accuracy of physical examination, scapular LDK378 clinical trial ultrasonography, and serum biomarkers for BFS diagnosis.

Design-Prospective case-control study.

Animals-48 horses (20 horses with BFS and 28 control horses).

Procedures-Horses underwent forelimb scintigraphic evaluation, physical examination, scapular ultrasonography,

and serum collection. Scintigraphy was used as a reference standard to which physical examination, scapular ultrasonography, and concentrations of serum biomarkers (carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen crosslinks and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity) were compared for assessing accuracy in BFS diagnosis.

Results-A diagnosis of BFS was strongly supported on scintigraphy by >= 2 regions of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake, including 1 region in the scapular spine and 1 region in the scapular body or ribs; on physical examination by lateral bowing of the scapulae; and on ultrasonography by widening of the scapular spine. None of the tests evaluated were accurate enough to replace scintigraphy for mild disease; however, physical examination and scapular ultrasonography were accurate in horses with moderate to severe BFS. Serum biomarkers were not accurate for BFS diagnosis.