Via the rigid registration

of these US images to the 3D p

Via the rigid registration

of these US images to the 3D preoperative images in the 4D image, the pose information of the fixed-pose 3D US transducer is determined with respect to the preoperative image coordinates. As feature(s) to use for the rigid registration, they may choose either internal liver vessels or the inferior vena cava. Since the latter is especially useful in patients with a diffuse liver disease, the authors newly propose using it. In the intraoperative real-time stage, they acquire 2D US images in real-time from the fixed-pose transducer. For each US image, they select Pexidartinib candidates for its corresponding 2D preoperative slice from the 4D preoperative MR (or CT) image, based on the predetermined pose information of the transducer. The correct corresponding image is then found among those candidates via real-time 2D registration based on a gradient-based

similarity measure. Finally, if needed, they obtain the position information of the liver lesion using the 3D preoperative image to which the registered 2D preoperative slice belongs. Results: The proposed method was applied to 23 clinical datasets and quantitative evaluations were conducted. With the exception of one clinical dataset that included US images of extremely low quality, 22 datasets of various liver status were successfully applied in the evaluation. Experimental results showed that the registration error between the anatomical features of US and preoperative MR images selleck chemical is less than 3 mm on average. The lesion tracking error was also found to be less than 5 mm at maximum. Conclusions: A new system has been proposed for real-time registration between 2D US and successive multiple 3D preoperative MR/CT images of the liver and was applied for indirect lesion tracking

for image-guided intervention. The system is fully automatic and robust even with images that had low quality due to patient status. Through visual examinations and quantitative evaluations, it was verified that the proposed system can provide high lesion tracking accuracy as well as high registration accuracy, at performance levels which were acceptable for various clinical applications. (c) 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.”
“Rhodium fluoroapatite (RhFAP) find more is an efficient catalyst for conjugate addition of organoboron reagents to alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. A variety of arylboronic acids and alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds were converted to the corresponding conjugate-addition products, demonstrating the versatility of the reaction. The reaction is highly selective. RhFAP was recovered quantitatively by simple filtration, and reused tor four cycles.”
“Axonemal dyneins must be precisely regulated and coordinated to produce ordered ciliary/flagellar motility, but how this is achieved is not understood.

The geochemistry of pore water in the till underlying the infiltr

The geochemistry of pore water in the till underlying the infiltration pond was determined prior to filling with process-affected

water (2008) and two years after the infiltration pond was filled with PA waters (2010). Pore water was analyzed for metals, cations, anions, and isotopes (H-2 and O-18). The distribution of conservative tracers (O-18 and chloride) indicated migration of the PA waters to approximately 0.9 m, but the migrations of major ions and metals were significantly delayed relative to this depth. Uptake of Na and Mo and release of Ca, Mg, Mn, Ba, and Sr suggest that adsorption and ion exchange reactions are the foremost attenuation processes controlling p38 protein kinase inorganic solutes EGFR inhibitor transport. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A novel method, based on acoustic emission (AE) techniques, for detecting agglomeration in fluidized beds is presented. Particle size characteristics are determined based on the principle that AE signals

with different frequency band energies are emitted when particles of different sizes impact an internal wall. By applying chaotic analysis to the AE signals, the malfunction coefficients are well defined. Agglomeration in the fluidized bed can then be detected by the sudden variation of malfunction coefficients. AE signals were investigated in a laboratory scale heated fluidized bed and an industrial polyethylene fluidized bed. Experimental data showed that the malfunction coefficients increased

with the growth of agglomeration. The results indicated that agglomeration in fluidized beds can be predicted and diagnosed effectively and precisely using AE techniques based on chaotic analysis.”
“Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) is an endogenous inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) with reported tumor promoting, as well as inhibitory, effects. These paradoxical properties are presumably mediated by different biological functions, MMP-dependent as well as -independent, and probably related to TIMP-1 levels of protein expression, ON-01910 in vitro post-translational modifications, and cellular localization. TIMP-1 is an N-glycosylated protein that folds into two functional domains, a C- and an N-terminal domain, with six disulfide bonds. Furthermore, TIMP-1 is processed in the N-terminal sequence. These three biochemical properties make TIMP-1 difficult to produce in conventional bacterial, insect, or yeast expression systems. We describe here a HEK293 cell-based strategy for production and purification of secreted and N-glycosylated recombinant his(6)-tagged human TIMP-1 (his(6)-rTIMP-1), which resulted in large amounts of highly purified and bioactive protein. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry confirmed the N- and C-termini of his(6)-rTIMP-1, and N-glycosylation profiling showed a match to the N-glycosylation of human plasma TIMP-1.

(C) 2013 The Authors

(C) 2013 The Authors. PD0332991 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Among the set of mammalian DNA polymerases, DNA polymerases belonging to the X and Y families have a special place. The majority of these enzymes are involved in repair, including base excision repair and non-homologous end joining. Some of them play a crucial role during the specific process which is referred to as translesion synthesis (TLS). TLS intends

for the cell surviving during the replication of damaged DNA templates. Additionally, specific activities of TLS-polymerases have to be useful for repair of double-stranded clustered lesions: if the synthesis is proceeded via base excision repair process, the role of DNA polymerases beta or lambda will be important. In this review we discussed the biochemical properties and functional relevance of X family DNA polymerases beta and lambda. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a poorly differentiated squamous cancer characterized by rearrangement of the NUT gene. Research

advances have provided opportunities for targeted therapy in NMC, yet the clinical features of this rare disease have not been systematically characterized. We BMS-777607 inhibitor report on a large population of such patients to identify the disease characteristics and treatments, correlate them with outcome, and to consider clinical recommendations.\n\nExperimental Design: A clinical database was established using retrospective demographic and outcomes data available on all known cases of NMC. Questionnaires were completed by treating physicians. β-Nicotinamide Pathologic, demographic, and clinical variables were assessed for 63 patients, the largest cohort of patients with NMC studied to date. Outcome data from 54 patients were available for survival analyses.\n\nResults: The diagnosis of NMC has increased annually

since 2007. Since 2009, there has been an observed increase in the age at diagnosis (P < 0.05). Geographic distribution of patients with NMC has been concentrated in the United States (n = 41, 65%). The median overall survival for patients with NMC was 6.7 months. The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 9% with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1% to 17% [1-year PFS 15% (5-24%) and 2-year overall survival (OS) was 19% with a 95% CI of 7%-31% (1-year OS: 30% (27-34%)]. Multivariate analysis suggested that extent of surgical resection and initial radiotherapy were independent predictors of PFS and OS. Notably, no chemotherapeutic regimen was associated with improved outcome.\n\nConclusions: NMC portends a poor prognosis among all squamous cell neoplasms and seems to be frequently unrecognized.

The downregulation of SR-A by curcumin was via ubiquitinproteasom

The downregulation of SR-A by curcumin was via ubiquitinproteasomecalpain-mediated proteolysis. Furthermore, the curcumin-induced upregulation of ABCA1 was mainly through calmodulin-liver X receptor

a (LXRa)-dependent transcriptional regulation. Curcumin administration modulated the expression of SR-A, ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-BI in aortas and retarded atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice. Conclusion Our findings suggest that inhibition of SR-A-mediated oxLDL uptake and promotion of ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux are two crucial events in suppression of cholesterol accumulation by curcumin in the transformation of macrophage foam cells.”
“Platelets and the lungs have an intimate relationship. Platelets are anucleate mammalian blood cells that continuously GSK461364 cost circulate through pulmonary vessels and that have major effector activities in hemostasis and inflammation. The lungs are reservoirs for megakaryocytes, the requisite precursor cell in thrombopoiesis,

which is the intricate process Cediranib by which platelets are generated. Platelets contribute to basal barrier integrity of the alveolar capillaries, which selectively restricts the transfer of water, proteins, and red blood cells out of the vessels. Platelets also contribute to pulmonary vascular repair. Although platelets bolster hemostatic and inflammatory defense of the healthy lung, experimental evidence and clinical evidence indicate that these blood cells are effectors of injury in a variety of pulmonary disorders and syndromes. Newly discovered biological capacities of platelets are being explored in the context of lung defense, disease, and remodeling.”
“Bonetto A, Aydogdu T, Jin X, Zhang Z, Zhan R, Puzis L, Koniaris LG, Zimmers TA. JAK/STAT3 pathway inhibition blocks skeletal muscle wasting downstream of IL-6 and in experimental cancer cachexia. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 303: Cyclosporin A cell line E410-E421, 2012. First published June 5, 2012; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00039.2012.-Cachexia, the metabolic dysregulation leading to

sustained loss of muscle and adipose tissue, is a devastating complication of cancer and other chronic diseases. Interleukin-6 and related cytokines are associated with muscle wasting in clinical and experimental cachexia, although the mechanisms by which they might induce muscle wasting are unknown. One pathway activated strongly by IL-6 family ligands is the JAK/STAT3 pathway, the function of which has not been evaluated in regulation of skeletal muscle mass. Recently, we showed that skeletal muscle STAT3 phosphorylation, nuclear localization, and target gene expression are activated in C26 cancer cachexia, a model with high IL-6 family ligands. Here, we report that STAT3 activation is a common feature of muscle wasting, activated in muscle by IL-6 in vivo and in vitro and by different types of cancer and sterile sepsis.

Postoperative complications included six biliary complications, f

Postoperative complications included six biliary complications, four of which required surgical revision and all of which occurred within 5

months of transplantation, and two vascular complications, including one early hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) and one late HAT, one of which required retransplantation. Five left lobe recipients required re-exploration, and one patient developed small-for-size syndrome following SLT, which resolved with conservative measures. ConclusionsTrue right/left ex vivoSLT remains a viable option for facilitating the expansion of the adult cadaver donor pool and allows for excellent patient and graft survival. Postoperative find more morbidity remains high, especially in recipients of the left lobe graft, and must be balanced with the benefits to be derived from transplant.”
“This paper presents the analysis of residual stress origin and its effect

on rivet failure in the self-piercing riveting joints. The FEM method was used to analyze the residual stress distribution in the rivet. The effect of maximum joint forming force value on its maximum strength and residual stress distribution in the rivet was described. selleck By increasing the SSPR rivet forming force the joints strength was increased. However, the pressing process with high value of the forming force is high-energy and accumulates significant residual stresses in the rivet. The maximum axial stress increased by 14% when the forming forces increased from 32 kN to 36 kN (increase by 12.5%). The theoretical considerations on safety coefficient determination for the rivet material were also presented. The fracture mechanics of elastic-plastic model body was characterized by using the energy state equations. The numerical calculations of J-integral, for two cases of maximum forming force in selected grooves in the rivet,

were also presented. The energy release intensity in the stress concentrator (grooves on the rivet) was higher for the higher value of the forming force. The J-integral value for the forming force of 36 kN increased by 48% in comparison to the forming force value of 32 kN. (C) selleck compound 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Studies on the nature and function of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP) over the past 10 years have demonstrated the importance of IDPs in normal cellular function. Although many proteins predicted to be IDPs have been experimentally characterized on an individual basis, the conservation of disorder between homologous proteins from different organisms has not been fully studied. We now demonstrate that the FlgM protein from the thermophile Aquifex aeolicus exhibits a more ordered conformation at 20 degrees C than the previously characterized FlgM protein from Salmonella typhimurium. FlgM is an inhibitor of the RNA transcription factor sigma(28), which is involved in regulation of the late-stage genes involved in flagella synthesis. Previous work has shown that the S.

(C) 2012 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“It has been re

(C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“It has been reported that mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells show multilineage differentiation potential similar to that

observed in mesenchymal stem cells. Since DFAT cells can be prepared from a small quantity of adipose tissue, they could facilitate cell-based therapies in small companion animals such as cats. The present study examined whether multipotent DFAT cells can be generated from feline adipose tissue, and the properties of DFAT cells were compared with those of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). DFAT cells and ASCs were prepared from the floating mature adipocyte fraction and the stromal vascular fraction, respectively, of collagenase-digested feline omental adipose tissue. Epacadostat price selleck compound Both cell types were evaluated for growth kinetics, colony-forming unit fibroblast (CFU-F) frequency, immunophenotypic properties, and multilineage differentiation potential.

DFAT cells and ASCs could be generated from approximately 1 g of adipose tissue and were grown and subcultured on laminin-coated dishes. The frequency of CFU-Fs in DFAT cells (35.8%) was significantly higher than that in ASCs (20.8%) at passage 1 (P1). DFAT cells and ASCs displayed similar immunophenotypes (CD44(+), CD90(+), CD105(+), CD14(-), CD34(-) and CD45(-)). Alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells were learn more readily detected in ASCs (15.2 +/- 7.2%) but were rare in DFAT cells (2.2 +/- 3.2%) at P1. Both cell types exhibited adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and smooth muscle cell differentiation potential in vitro. In conclusion, feline DFAT cells exhibited similar properties to ASCs but displayed higher CPU-F frequency and greater homogeneity. DFAT cells, like ASCs, may be an attractive source for cell-based therapies in cats. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) mediating the cellular uptake of many endogenous and exogenous chemicals, including

drugs in clinical use, play an important role in drug absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism. At present, more and more cardiovascular agents have been found as substrates of OATPs. Multiple drugs are often used in combination for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is necessary to review the role of OATPs in pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions of cardiovascular agents. This review summarizes the findings of recent studies, as well as information obtained from several databases: ISI Web of Knowledge, SciFinder and PubMed. It provides a baseline on the level of evidence available on the role of OATPs in pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions of cardiovascular agents, and should be of help to those intending to research further on these topics.

But, its actual preventive effect on seroma formation might be re

But, its actual preventive effect on seroma formation might be related to diminished inflammatory response.”
“Kinetics of spermatogonia as well as localization in niches have been described in rodents, but rarely in large animals or in species of economical interest. In this regard, and envisioning the possibility of spermatogonial transplantation from donkeys (Equus asinus) to mules (Equus mulus mulus), many variables that may contribute for an enhanced understanding of the spermatogonial biology in donkeys were investigated. Testes from five adult donkeys were routinely processed for high-resolution

light microscopy. Donkey seminiferous epithelium can be divided in XII stages based on the development of the acrosomal system. In addition, spermatogonial morphology and morphometric analysis were performed allowing the characterization of two groups of spermatogonia: undifferentiated (A(und)) and differentiating (A(1), A(2), A(3), B(1) eFT-508 clinical trial and B(2)). A(und) spermatogonia were present along all XII stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle of this species, whereas differentiating spermatogonia were only at specific stages. Number of differentiating BMS-345541 mw spermatogonia gradually increased as the cycle progressed, despite the apparent rigid regulation of the balance between mitosis and apoptosis

throughout the spermatogenic process. Understanding of spermatogonial biology and kinetics in donkeys, revealed that type A(und) spermatogonia Duvelisib are located in specific microenvironments, the spermatogonial niches. The present results enhance understanding of spermatogonial biology in donkeys providing information about subtypes, morphology, number and mitosis/apoptosis along the seminiferous epithelium cycle. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier

“AIM: To investigate the differential expression of leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) in gastric cancer tissues and its significance related to tumor growth and spread. METHODS: Formalin-fixed biopsy specimens of intestinal metaplasia (n = 90), dysplasia (n = 53), gastric adenocarcinoma (n = 180), metastases in lymph nodes and the liver (n = 15), and lesion-adjacent normal gastric mucosa (controls; n = 145) were obtained for analysis from the Peking University Cancer Hospital’s Department of Pathology and Gastrointestinal Surgery tissue archives (January 2003 to December 2011). The biopsied patients’ demographic and clinicopathologic data were retrieved from the hospital’s medical records database. Each specimen was subjected to histopathological typing to classify the tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage and to immunohistochemistry staining to detect the expression of the cancer stem cell marker LGR5. The intergroup differences in LGR5 expression were assessed by Spearman’s rank correlation analysis, and the relationship between LGR5 expression level and the patients’ clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated by the. 2 test or Fisher’s exact test.

This functional pathway might be important for relating motor and

This functional pathway might be important for relating motor and sensory information used by the listener to identify speech sounds. Further, its development might reflect changes in the mechanisms that relate visual speech information to articulatory speech representations through experience

producing and perceiving speech. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Evidence is mounting of the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in insulin resistance, diabetes and associated complications. This review aims to provide an overview of the effects of insulin resistance on mitochondrial function in several tissues. We consider the pathogenesis of insulin resistance from a mitochondrial perspective

and contemplate potential beneficial effects of strategies aimed at modulating mitochondrial function in insulin resistance, including insulin and insulin-sensitizing drugs, antioxidants, and selectively targeting antioxidants to mitochondria.”
“Curcumin is a polyphenol Kinase Inhibitor Library obtained from the plant Curcuma longa (called turmeric) that displays several pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antitumoral activity, but clinical use has been limited by its poor solubility in water and, consequently, minimal systemic bioavailability. We have therefore formulated the drug into nanocarrier systems in an attempt to improve its therapeutic properties. This study evaluates the effect of intraperitoneally administered nanocapsules containing curcumin on subcutaneous melanoma in mice inoculated with B16-F10 cells, and on the cytotoxicity activity against B16-F10 cells in vitro. FK228 Phagocytic uptake of formulations was also evaluated upon incubation with macrophage J774 cells by fluorescence microscopy. Lipid and polymeric nanocapsules were prepared by the phase inversion and nanoprecipitation methods, respectively. The uptake of the lipid nanocapsules

prepared using Solutol HS15 was significantly reduced in J774 cells. Curcumin, as free drug or as drug-loaded nanocapsules, was administrated at a dose of 6 mg/kg twice a week for 21 days. Free drug and curcumin-loaded nanocapsules significantly reduced tumor volume (P < 0.05 vs. control), but no difference was found in the antitumor activity displayed by lipid and polymeric nanocapsules. This assumption was supported by the in vitro study, in which free curcumin as well as loaded into nanocapsules caused significant reduction of cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.”
“Taheebo, the purple inner bark of the Bignoniaceae tree Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb, which is found in tropical rain forests in northeastern Brazil, has been used as a traditional medicine for various diseases for more than 1,500 years.

Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determi

Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by means of FIRMS, NMR, and quantum chemical CD calculations. Urnucratin A (1) was found to be active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus

faecium, and Streptococcus pyogenes with MIC values of 2, 1, and 0.5 mu g/mL, respectively.”
“Cbl is an adaptor protein and an E3 ligase that plays both positive and negative roles in several signaling pathways that affect various cellular functions. Tyrosine 737 is unique to Cbl and is phosphorylated by Syk and Src family kinases. Phosphorylated Cbl Tyr(737) creates a binding site for the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K, which also plays an important role in the regulation SHP099 ic50 of bone resorption by osteoclasts. To investigate the role of Cbl-PI3K interaction in bone homeostasis, we examined the knock-in mice (Cbl(YF/YF)) in which the PI3K binding site in Cbl is ablated due to the mutation in the regulatory tyrosine. We report that in CblYF/YF mice, despite increased numbers of osteoclasts, bone volume is increased due to defective osteoclast function. Additionally, in ex vivo cultures, mature CblYF/YF osteoclasts showed an increased ability to survive in the presence of RANKL due to delayed onset of apoptosis. RANKL-mediated signaling is perturbed in CblYF/YF osteoclasts, and most interestingly, AKT phosphorylation is up-regulated, suggesting

that the lack of PI3K sequestration by Cbl results in increased survival and decreased bone resorption. Cumulatively, these in vivo and in vitro results IPI-145 price show that, on one hand, binding of Cbl to PI3K negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation, GSK1838705A purchase survival, and signaling events (e.g. AKT phosphorylation), whereas on the other hand it positively influences osteoclast function.”
“Alpha1A-adrenoceptors are important regulators of prostatic smooth muscle tone and an important target for therapy of lower urinary tract symptoms. The function of heptahelical transmembrane

receptors such as adrenoceptors can be regulated by beta-arrestin-2, which may bind to receptors besides G proteins. Here, we investigated the expression and alpha 1A-adrenoceptor binding of beta-arrestin-2 in the human prostate.\n\nHuman prostatic tissues were obtained from patients undergoing radical prostatectomies. The expression of beta-arrestin-2 and alpha 1A-adrenoceptors was studied by RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. The protein-protein interaction between alpha 1A-adrenoceptors and beta-arrestin-2 was investigated by coimmunoprecipitation.\n\nRT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of beta-arrestin-2 mRNA and protein in the human prostate. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated beta-arrestin-2 expression in smooth muscle and stromal cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that alpha 1A-adrenoceptors in the human prostate may interact with beta-arrestin-2.

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“Background: Fo

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Following the discovery of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in LBH589 datasheet 1989, screening of all blood donors for antibodies became mandatory in Sweden as of 1 January 1992. Methods: Serum samples were collected from patients who had received a blood transfusion in the period prior to 1992 in western Sweden. The prevalence

of HCV infection was assessed by antibody screening. Results: Of 13,573 screening serologies, 124 patients (0.9%) had antibodies against HCV; 113 (0.8%) had detectable HCV RNA indicating an ongoing infection. Ninety-one (73%) were female, of whom 32 had been transfused in conjunction with childbirth. A review of the 32 liver biopsy reports AS1842856 available showed that 2 patients had cirrhosis and an additional 9 patients had periportal or septal fibrosis. Conclusion: A considerable portion of screened patients had an ongoing HCV infection and were eligible for antiviral treatment. Look-back screening

for HCV among recipients of blood transfusions prior to 1992 is meaningful and should include women transfused in childbirth.”
“The title compound, C(14)H(9)Br(3)N(2)O(2)center dot CH(4)O, was prepared by the reaction of 3,5-dibromo-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 3-bromobenzohydrazide in methanol. The asymmetric unit of the crystal consists of a Schiff base molecule and a methanol molecule of crystallization. The dihedral

angle between the two benzene rings is 5.5 (2)degrees. An intramolecular O-H center dot center dot center dot N hydrogen bond is observed. In the crystal XMU-MP-1 supplier structure, pairs of adjacent Schiff base molecules are linked by two methanol molecules through intermolecular N-H center dot center dot center dot O and O-H center dot center dot center dot O hydrogen bonds.”
“P>Aims\n\nTo determine the effect of sickle cell trait on measurement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) in African American patients with diabetes mellitus.\n\nMethods\n\nThis is a retrospective study including 885 outpatients who underwent HbA(1c) testing. Medical record review and sickle cell trait determinations based on the HbA(1c) assay were performed in African American participants. The relationship between HbA(1c) and serum glucose measurements was analysed.\n\nResults\n\nData were obtained from 385 AA (109 with SCT, 22 with haemoglobin C trait and 254 without haemoglobinopathy) and 500 European American patients. In a model created through multivariate repeated-effects regression, the relationship between HbA(1c) and simultaneous serum glucose did not differ between African American subjects with and without the sickle cell trait, but differed between African American subjects without the sickle cell trait and European Americans (P = 0.0002).