In general, a 3-log difference was observed between the L/D micro

In general, a 3-log difference was observed between the L/D microscopy count and culture count accounting for the presence of non-culturable fraction in the bacterial population in in-use MWF.

Conclusions: The optimized AR staining- and the L/D staining-based microscopy methods have the potential for rapid, specific and differential assessment (viable vs non-viable) of MWF-associated mycobacteria and co-contaminants in field MWF.

Significance and Impact of the study: Early detection of MWF mycobacteria by rapid, low-cost, less-skill intensive and culture-independent fluorescence-based microscopy methods SGC-CBP30 datasheet will facilitate timely intervention to protect the machine workers from occupational hazards.”
“Aim: To estimate

the ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid

(EDTA) concentration at which the L1 enzyme activity in the cell extracts of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia can be mostly inhibited.

Methods and Results: The effective inhibition concentration of EDTA against the L1 enzyme in the cell extracts was firstly evaluated by using the L2 isogenic mutant of S. maltophilia KJ, KJ Delta L2, as the assayed strain. Approximately 92% L1 activity was inhibited by 10 mmol l(-1) EDTA, which is 100-fold higher than that from previously reported protocols (0.1 mmol l(-1)). Three phylogenetic clusters of L1 proteins were revealed from 11 clinical S. maltophilia isolates, with a L1 protein divergence of 0-11%. The EDTA concentration required to inhibit the L1 enzymes of different phylogenetic clusters was estimated to be 10 mmol l(-1).

Conclusion: Thiazovivin in vivo The previous nitrocefin-EDTA protocol for differentially quantifying the L1 and L2 activity in the cell extracts has been modified by raising the added EDTA concentration to 10 mmol l(-1).

Significance and Impact of the Study: A rapid and accurate method for determination of L1 and L2 activity will provide a convenient tool for enzyme characterization and induction mechanism study of S. maltophilia.”
“Aims: To detect sensor histidine protein kinases (HPKs) similar to accessory gene regulator C (AgrC) from the rumen microbial ecosystem.

Methods and the Results: Genes

related to sensor HPKs were amplified by PCR using two pairs of oxyclozanide agrC-specfic primers from DNA extracted from bovine rumen contents. The PCR products were cloned, sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. It appeared that two sequences were HPKs.

Conclusions: Although amino acid sequences deduced from the nucleotide sequences obtained in this study showed high similarities with sensor HPKs responding to citrate or C-4-dicarboxylates, they did not show high similarities with AgrC. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study revealed the presence in the rumen of sensor HPKs responding to citrate or C-4-dicarboxylates, which could stimulate rumen fermentation. Therefore, it has been shown that citrate or C-4-dicarboxylate metabolism is partially regulated by a two-component regulatory system in some rumen bacteria.

Intrathecal injection of non-amidated phoenixin (2 5 mu g) did no

Intrathecal injection of non-amidated phoenixin (2.5 mu g) did not significantly alter the number of writhes selleck kinase inhibitor evoked by acetic acid. Our result shows that phoenixin is expressed in sensory neurons of the dorsal root, nodose and trigeminal ganglia, the amidated peptide is bio- active, and exogenously administered phoenixin may preferentially suppress visceral as opposed to thermal pain. (C) 2013 IBRO. Published

by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Certain immune-driven mutations in HIV-1, such as those arising in p24(Gag), decrease viral replicative capacity. However, the intersubtype differences in the replicative consequences of such mutations have not been explored. In HIV-1 subtype B, the p24(Gag) M250I mutation is a rare variant (0.6%) that is enriched among elite controllers (7.2%) (P = 0.0005) and appears to be a rare escape variant selected by HLA-B58 supertype alleles (P < 0.01). In contrast, in subtype C, it is a relatively common minor polymorphic variant (10 to 15%) whose appearance is not associated with a particular HLA allele. Using site-directed mutant viruses, we demonstrate

that M250I reduces in vitro viral replicative capacity in both subtype B and subtype C sequences. However, whereas in subtype C downstream compensatory mutations at p24(Gag) codons 252 and 260 reduce the adverse effects of M250I, fitness costs in subtype B appear difficult to restore. Indeed, patient-derived subtype B sequences harboring M250I exhibited in vitro replicative defects, while those Quisqualic acid from subtype C did not. The structural implications of M250I were predicted

by protein modeling to be greater in subtype B versus C, providing a potential explanation this website for its lower frequency and enhanced replicative defects in subtype B. In addition to accounting for genetic differences between HIV-1 subtypes, the design of cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-based vaccines may need to account for differential effects of host-driven viral evolution on viral fitness.”
“Objective: To explore relationships between wake-and sleep-related health behaviors and circulating concentrations of inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha) in a cohort of community dwelling older adults. Low-grade chronic inflammation is an important risk factor for age-related morbidity. Health behaviors, including average aggregate measures of sleep, have been linked to increased inflammation in older adults. Variability in sleep timing may also be associated with increased inflammation. Method: Participants were community dwelling older adults >= 60 years (n = 222: 39 bereaved, 55 caregivers, 52 with insomnia, and 76 good sleepers). Mean values and intraindividual variability in sleep, as well as caffeine and alcohol use, exercise, and daytime napping, were assessed by sleep diaries. Blood samples were obtained in the morning. Results: Several interactions were noted between sleep behaviors, inflammatory markers, and participant group.

BSA which acts as an efficient blocking layer in microarrays, ten

BSA which acts as an efficient blocking layer in microarrays, tends to show an interaction with QDs. In view of this fact, we investigated two series of samples which were fabricated in the presence and absence of BSA blocking layer. Variation selleck kinase inhibitor in the incubation time required for the antigen-antibody interaction to take place, different proteins as controls and the effect of bare QDs on these microarrays, were the three main parameters which

were studied in these two series. Samples fabricated in the absence of BSA blocking layer exhibited an extremely high specificity in the detection of cancer proteins and were also marked by negligible nonspecific binding effects of QDs, in stark contrast to the samples fabricated using BSA as a blocking layer. Fabrication of nanoarrays of QD-conjugated PSA Abs having a spot size of nearly 900 nm has also been demonstrated. Thus, we show the potential offered by QDs in in vitro analysis of cancer biomarker imaging.”
“Although neuroimmune interactions associated with the development of pain sensitization in models of neuropathic pain have been widely studied, there are some aspects that require further investigation. Thus, we aimed to evaluate whether the local intraneural or perineural injections of dexamethasone, an efficacious anti-inflammatory

and immunosuppressant drug, delays the development of both thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in an experimental model of neuropathic pain in rats. Hargreaves and electronic von Frey tests were applied. The chronic constriction injury (CCI) of right sciatic nerve was performed. Single intraneural dexamethasone administration at the moment of constriction delayed the development of sensitization

for thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Baf-A1 price However, perineural administration of dexamethasone, at the highest dose, did not delay experimental pain development. These results show that inflammation/immune response at the site of nerve lesion is an essential trigger for the pathological changes that lead to both hyperalgesia and allodynia. In conclusion, this approach opens new opportunities to study cellular and molecular neuroimmune interactions associated with the development of pain derived from peripheral neuropathies. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototype of the Rhabdoviridae family, contains a single surface glycoprotein (G) that is responsible for attachment to cells and mediates membrane fusion. Working with the Indiana serotype of VSV, we employed a reverse genetic approach to produce fully authentic recombinant viral particles bearing lethal mutations in the G gene. By altering the hydrophobicity of the two fusion loops within G, we produced a panel of mutants, W72A, Y73A, Y116A, and A117F, that were nonfusogenic.

Results – One hundred and eight patients (mean age 47 7 years, 5

Results. – One hundred and eight patients (mean age 47.7 years, 55% men) were consecutively enrolled. Sensory loss in the painful dermatonne was the most frequent finding at physical examination Vemurafenib solubility dmso (56% of cases). EMG was abnormal in at least one muscle supplied by femoral and sciatic nerves in 45 cases (42%). Inclusion of paraspinal muscles increased sensitivity to only 49% and that of proximal muscles was useless. Motor and sensory neurography was seldom

abnormal. The most frequent motor neurographic abnormalities were a delay of F-wave minimum latency and decrease in the compound muscle action potential amplitude from extensor digitorum brevis and abductor hallucis in L5 and S1 radiculopathies, respectively. Sensory neurography was usually normal, the amplitude of sensory nerve action potential was seldom reduced when HD injured dorsal root ganglion or postganglionic root fibres. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that EMG abnormalities could be predicted by myotomal muscular weakness, abnormal deep reflexes, and paraesthesiae. The only clinical and electrophysiological differences with respect to root involvement level concerned deep reflexes and motor neurography of deep peroneal and tibial nerves.

Conclusions. – Only some EDX parameters are helpful for the diagnosis of lumbosacral radiculopathy.

EMG was abnormal in less than 50% of cases and its abnormalities could be predicted by some clinical findings. However, neurography is useful as a GSK461364 tool for differential diagnosis between radiculopathy and more diffuse disorders of the peripheral nervous system (polyneuropathy, plexopathy). (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Recent findings from several large-scale community surveys suggest that delusions tend to occur in non-clinical samples as a continuous phenotype rather than as an all-or-none phenomenon. However, the

majority of studies on the prevalence of delusions and paranoid ideation are limited to Western samples. The present study aims to examine the phenomenon and base-rate of paranoid ideation in a Chinese non-clinical sample. A total of 4951 undergraduates (65.9% male) completed a checklist for paranoid ideation and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Participants Rebamipide were classified into individuals with and without schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) features based on the SPQ. For the frequency subscale, 2.1-18.2% of the participants without SPD features experienced certain types of paranoid ideation at least once a week during the survey. The prevalence rate even elevated to a higher proportion in conviction and distress dimensions. For the conviction subscale, 93-53.5% of the participants somewhat believed of the ideations. For the distress subscale, 14.7-31.3% of the participants felt somewhat distressing in the experienced paranoid ideation.

The results

indicate that Ca2+ imaging is a useful tool t

The results

indicate that Ca2+ imaging is a useful tool to quantify the amount of neuronal gap junction coupling in cultures.(C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The vaccinia virus I5L open reading frame encodes a 79-amino-acid protein, with two predicted transmembrane domains, that is conserved among all sequenced members of the chordopoxvirus subfamily. No nonpoxvirus homologs or functional motifs have been recognized, and the role of the I5 protein remains unknown. We found that synthesis of I5 was dependent on viral DNA replication and occurred MLN0128 exclusively at late times, consistent with a consensus late promoter motif adjacent to the start of the open reading frame. I5 was present in preparations of purified virions and could be extracted with nonionic detergent, suggesting membrane insertion. Transmission electron microscopy of immunogold-labeled thawed cryosections of infected cells

revealed the association of an epitope-tagged I5 with the membranes of immature and mature virions. Viable I5L deletion and frameshift mutants were constructed and found to replicate like wild-type virus in a variety of cell lines and primary human epidermal keratinocytes, indicating that the protein was dispensable for in vitro cultivation. However, mouse intranasal challenge experiments indicated that MM-102 a mutant virus with a frameshift resulting in a stop codon near the N terminus of I5 was attenuated compared

to control virus. The attenuation was correlated with clearance of mutant viruses from the respiratory tract and with less progression and earlier resolution Dichloromethane dehalogenase of pathological changes. We suggest that I5 is involved in an aspect of host defense that is evolutionarily conserved although a role in cell tropism should also be considered.”
“In a previous study of experimental murine encephalitis induced by Junin virus (JV), an arenavirus, we showed increased expression of iNOS by unidentified cells, concomitant with the astrocyte reaction. The specific inhibition of iNOS was associated with greater mortality but lower astrocytosis, suggesting that the protective role of nitric oxide (NO) synthesized by iNOS was related to enhanced astrocyte activation, representing a beneficial cellular response to virus-induced central nervous system damage. In the present work, cultured astrocytes were used to study whether JV infection could trigger iNOS expression and assess its eventual relationship with viral replication, glial fibrilary acidic protein (GFAP) expression levels and the presence of apoptosis. We found that JV infection of astrocytes did not induce apoptosis but produced both increased iNOS synthesis, detected by immunocytochemistry and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, and increased NO, which was indirectly measured by nitrite/nitrate levels.

Fluoxetine and ECT significantly increased mGlu(7) receptor expre

Fluoxetine and ECT significantly increased mGlu(7) receptor expression in NS animals. This work demonstrates changes to mGlu(4) receptor expression may be a lasting molecular change which occurs due to early-life stress. Taken together our data shows there are selective changes to group III mGlu receptors under basal and early-life stress conditions.

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Metabotropic

Glutamate Receptors’. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aim: To determine the prevalence and sequelae of falls in PBC and to identify modifiable risk factors.

Design: Cross-sectional, geographical, population census of PBC and two control groups: SP600125 primary sclerosing cholangitis and a community dwelling population. Multidisciplinary falls assessment of a representative group of PBC.

Methods: Symptom assessment tools, completed by the

three cohorts, determined the prevalence of falls, injuries and associated symptoms. Multidisciplinary assessments, adhering to NICE PX-478 datasheet guidelines, identified modifiable fall associations.

Results: Significantly more of the PBC population had fallen (72% P < 0.001) than both control groups. Fifty-five percent had fallen in the last year (P < 0.001), and 22% more than once in the last year (P < 0.01). Seventy percent of PBC fallers were injured, 27% fractured a bone and 19% were admitted to hospital, all significantly more common than controls. Postural dizziness was significantly worse in fallers (P < 0.001), as were balance (P < 0.001) and lower limb strength (P = 0.002). Lower limb strength was independently associated with number of falls in previous year (beta = 0.184, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Falls and resultant injury are prevalent in PBC and more common than previously recognized. Addressing postural dizziness, poor balance

and lower limb weakness using a multidisciplinary approach has the potential to reduce falls, morbidity and mortality and as a result improve quality of life.”
“A fundamental question relating to animal behaviour is how animals learn; in particular, how they come to associate stimuli with rewards. Numerous empirical findings can be explained by assuming that animals use some mechanism similar to the Rescorla-Wagner learning rule, which is a relatively simple and highly general method of updating the associative cAMP strength between different stimuli. However, the Rescorla-Wagner rule is often not optimal, which raises the question of why a rule with such properties should have evolved. We consider the evolution of learning rules in a simple environment where there exists an optimal rule of similar complexity to the Rescorla-Wagner rule. We show that because the Rescorla-Wagner rule is less sensitive to changes in its parameters than the optimal rule, there is a wider range of parameter values over which the rule structure is initially viable.

Plausible behavioral and

biological mechanisms are discus

Plausible behavioral and

biological mechanisms are discussed (including health behaviors, neurohormones, and immune measures) as well as suggestions for clinicians, limitations, future directions, and a discussion of whether these constructs can be changed. In conclusion, investigating the importance and usefulness of GSK1904529A positive psychosocial factors in predicting disease progression in HIV is in its beginning scientific stages and shows good initial evidence and future promise.”
“Improved winter cold tolerance is widespread among small birds overwintering in cold climates and is associated with improved shivering endurance and elevated summit metabolic rate (M(sum)). Phenotypic flexibility resulting in elevated M(sum), could result from either increased skeletal muscle mass (perhaps with support from similar adjustments in “”nutritional organs”") and/or cellular metabolic intensity. We investigated seasonal changes in body composition of three species of passerine birds resident in cold winter climates, all of which show large seasonal variations in M(sum) ( > 25%); white-breasted nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis), black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus), and house sparrow (Passer domesticus). All three species displayed significant winter increases in pectoralis and heart masses, and supracor-acoideus mass also increased Lazertinib in vivo in

winter chickadees. Gizzard mass increased in winter for all three species, but masses of other nutritional organs did not vary consistently with season. These data suggest that winter increases in pectoralis and heart masses are important contributors to elevated thermogenic capacity and cold tolerance, but seasonal variation in nutritional organ masses, other than gizzard, which

is likely associated MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit with dietary changes, are not universally associated with seasonal phenotypes. The winter increases in pectoralis and heart masses are consistent with data from other small passerines showing marked seasonal changes in cold tolerance and support the Variable Maximum Model of seasonal phenotypic flexibility, where physiological adjustments that promote improved cold tolerance, also result in elevated M(sum). (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Hemiplegic migraine is a rare type of migraine that has an aura characterized by the presence of motor weakness, which may occasionally last up to several days, and then resolve without sequela. Pathogenesis of migraine remains unclear and, recently, perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) has provided a non-invasive method to study hemodynamic changes during acute attacks.

Two female patients were admitted in our hospital suffering from prolonged hemiparesis. In both cases, they underwent MRI examination using a 1.5 T magnet including axial diffusion-weighted and perfusion sequences.

2%) had histological upper tract

2%) had histological upper tract GSK1210151A urothelial carcinoma variants. The

most common variants were squamous cell and glandular differentiation in 9.9% and 4.4% of cases, respectively. Histological variants were associated with advanced tumor stage, tumor multifocality, sessile tumor architecture, tumor necrosis, lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastasis compared to pure upper tract urothelial carcinoma (p <= 0.031). On univariable analysis variant histology was associated with disease recurrence (p = 0.002) and cancer specific mortality (p = 0.003). In 174 patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy there was no difference in disease recurrence or survival between variant histology and pure upper tract urothelial carcinoma

(p = 0.42 and 0.59, respectively). On multivariable analysis adjusted for the effects of standard clinicopathological characteristics variant histology was not associated with either end point.

Conclusions: Almost 25% of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma treated with radical nephroureterectomy harbored histological variants. Variant histology was associated with features of biologically aggressive upper tract urothelial carcinoma. While variant histology is associated with worse outcomes on univariable analysis but this effect did not remain significant on multivariable analysis.”
“Following previous research suggesting hearing-aid experience may induce functional plasticity at the peripheral level of the auditory system, click-evoked auditory brainstem response was recorded at first fitting GSK2118436 and 12 weeks after hearing-aid use by unilateral and bilateral hearing-aid users. A control group

of experienced hearing-aid users was tested over a similar time scale. No heptaminol significant alterations in auditory brainstem response latency or amplitude were identified in any group. This does not support the hypothesis of plastic changes in the peripheral auditory system induced by hearing-aid use for 12 weeks. NeuroReport 24:271-275 (C) 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the potential tumor markers that function in carcinogenesis and tumor progression, thus providing important diagnostic and prognostic information.

Experimental design: We performed 2-D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS to investigate the differentially expressed proteins in 25 papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues. For validation of candidate proteins and investigation of clinical significance, we performed Western, Northern blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining.

Results: Our proteomic analyses revealed significantly decreased annexin A3 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma at both the protein and mRNA levels, compared with normal thyroid tissue. ANXA3 immunoreactivity was not significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, multifocality, capsular invasion or perithyroidal extension in thyroid cancer.

However, was increased during the trial in the heat This was an

However, was increased during the trial in the heat. This was an expected effect as when exercising in hot environmental conditions, Tcore rises accordingly. It has been

shown that with an increase in Tcore, (and therefore RE) also increases [42]. Despite this observation, no discernable difference in between Bortezomib in vivo pre- and post-supplementation trials was reported. No other changes in any of the respiratory variables could be observed in the pre- and post-supplementation trials. Similar results have been reported in several other studies using Cr as the hyperhydrating agent [13] as well as during constant load exercise in the study by Easton et al. (2007) where hyperhydration was induced by Cr and Gly [19]. The data from the present study suggest that an increase Selleck CA-4948 in BM of approximately 1.4% (average increase in BM in the present study) has no significant effect on . Whether such an increase in BM would influence running performance remains to be determined. Furthermore, as HR responses reflect those of [43], the finding that HR during exercise was not significantly different between pre- and post-supplementation trials conducted at 10°C is further evidence against any detrimental metabolic effect of the added BM induced by hyperhydration on RE. Conclusions A hyperhydration strategy that combines Cr and Gly supplementation for 7 days increased

BM and TBW and consequently reduced cardiovascular

and thermal strain but did not significantly Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II affect the oxygen cost of running at 60% of at 35°C in trained runners. The finding that a significant increase in BM did not negatively impact on RE of trained runners, supports the use of effective hyperhydration strategies during endurance running when conditions so dictate (i.e., running in hot and humid conditions). Further studies are necessary however to confirm these findings during faster running speeds reflective of true performance. Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge Oleg Chepelin, Chao Wang and Andreas Anagnostopoulos for their major contribution in the data collection as well as John Wilson for his technical assistance. References 1. Saunders P, Pyne DB, Telford RD, Hawley JA: Factors affecting running economy in trained distance runners. Sports Med 2004, 34:465–485.PubMedCrossRef 2. Bassett DR Jr, Howley ET: Limiting factors for maximum oxygen uptake and determinants of endurance performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000, 32:70–84.PubMedCrossRef 3. Coyle EF: Fluid and fuel intake during exercise. J Sports Sci 2004, 22:39–55.PubMedCrossRef 4. Zouhal H, Groussard C, Minter G, Vincent S, Cretual A, Gratas-Delamarche A, Delamarche P, Noakes TD: Inverse relationship between percentage body weight change and finishing time in 643 forty-two-kilometre marathon runners. Br J Sports Med 2010, 45:1101–5.

Table 2 Yield of gas composition from catalytic pyrolysis of Lami

Table 2 Yield of gas composition from catalytic Saracatinib in vivo pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica Catalyst Without catalyst Al-SBA-15 Yield (wt%) CO 2.71 3.64 CO2 19.78 19.03 C1 ~ C4 2.61 3.97 Water contents in bio-oil (wt%) 42.03 50.32 Figure 3 Product distribution of bio-oil from catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica. Figure 4 shows the detailed species distribution of oxygenates contained in the bio-oils produced from the non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis experiments. 1,4-Anhydro-d-galactitol, which was the most abundant oxygenate species (24.6%) in the non-catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, and 1,5-anhydro-d-manitol (6.3%) were completely removed by catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15. The content of other

oxygenates including aldehydes and esters, which also deteriorate the stability of bio-oil, was also reduced significantly by catalytic reforming. Furans can be converted via various chemical reactions to valuable fine chemicals such as medicines, fuel additives, and agricultural chemicals and be applied to the synthesis of polymer materials like polyesters [2]. Therefore, increased production of furans can enhance the economic value of bio-oil. The total content of furans was increased greatly by catalytic reforming over GSK3326595 chemical structure Al-SBA-15 from 1.6% to 10.7%. This was attributed to the conversion of 1,4-anhydro-d-galactitol

and 1,5-anhydro-d-manitol by dehydration and other reactions such as cracking, decarbonylation, etc. occurring over Al-SBA-15 [3]. The content of another high-value-added component cyclopentanone, which can be used Clomifene for the synthesis of various chemicals including pharmaceuticals and pesticides [18], was also increased by catalytic reforming from 7.8% to 10.0%. Figure 4 Detailed species distribution of oxygenates in bio-oil from

catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica. Figure 5 shows the detailed species distribution of mono-aromatics, which are often the target high-value-added chemicals of catalytic reforming of bio-oil. The contents of benzene and ethylbenzene were not altered much by catalytic reforming but the contents of toluene and xylene were increased significantly. C9 mono-aromatics, which were not found in the non-catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, were produced from the catalytic reforming. The increased production of mono-aromatics was attributed to the oligomerization and aromatization of pyrolysis reaction intermediates occurring on the acid sites of Al-SBA-15. Previous study [3] has reported that the catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass over Al-SBA-15 produced mono-aromatics via oligomerization and aromatization. Figure 5 Detailed species distribution of mono-aromatics in bio-oil from catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of L. japonica Figure 6 shows the results of catalytic co-pyrolysis of L. japonica and PP using the fixed-bed reactor. Like in the pyrolysis of L.