However, these materials are unsatisfactory with regards to sensitivity http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Enzastaurin.html and selectivity, are high costing, and show quick loss of activity by adsorption and accumulation of intermediates or chloride ions [2,43]. Therefore, the development of highly selective, sensitive, inexpensive, reliable and fast enzymatic/nonenzymatic glucose sensor is still Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries imperatively needed.In recent years, an increasing number of researchers have explored the production of novel nano-scale metal oxides, noble metal-doped metal oxides, metal oxide-CNTs nanocomposites, and metal oxide-polymer composites. Novel analytical devices based on nanostructured metal oxides are cost-effective, highly sensitive due to the large surface-to-volume Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries ratio of the nanostructure, and additionally show excellent selectivity when coupled to biorecognition molecules with simple design [44�C47].
Some metal oxides such as ZnO and CeO2 show high isoelectric point (IEP), excellent biocompatibility, and easy synthetic procedure for nanostructure that enables reliable immobilization of GOx. On the other hand, MnO2 and ZrO2 having low IEP values are suitable for the immobilization of high IEP proteins. The catalytic ability of transition Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries metal oxides such as CuO and NiO of nonenzymatic direct electrooxidation of glucose is one of the attractive properties in glucose detection allowing minimum fabrication cost and stable glucose sensors. This article provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art research activities that focus on several important metal-oxide nanostructures and nanocomposites in addition to the application of nanostructured metal oxides to glucose Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries sensing.
Also, the most commonly-used electrochemical detection methods for the glucose sensing will be discussed.2.?Electrochemical Principles of Glucose BiosensorsThere is no doubt that the development of an ideal glucose sensor must be top issue for the biosensor industry. Numerous processes and methodologies have been developed GSK-3 for creating new glucose biosensors such as electrochemical methods , colorimetry , conductometry , optical methods , and fluorescent spectroscopy . Among them, the electrochemical glucose sensors have attracted the most attention over the last 40 years because of their unbeaten sensitivity and selectivity. Additionally, electrochemical techniques show lower detection limit, faster response time, better long term stability and inexpensiveness.
The extremely sensitive fluorescent spectroscopy can even detect a single molecule selleck catalog and a few fluorescence-based in vivo monitoring of glucose are available, but none of them are practically applicable to diabetes management . The electrochemical glucose sensors are basically categorized into three major groups depending on the measurement principles: i.e., potentiometric, amperometric, impedemetric or conductometric sensors.2.1.