6 sec support/utterance (r2 = 0.16; P < 0.0001). Table 3 Classification of utterances occurring
during the first 3 min after the onset of cardiac arrest The median participants’ ratings were 9 (Inter-quartile-range [IQR] 8 – 10) for the realism of the scenario, 8 (IQR 8 – 10) for the realism of their own behaviour, 8 (IQR 7 – 10) for the realism of the behaviour Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of their colleagues, 7 (IQR 5 – 10) for the quality of their team’s performance, 6 (IQR 4 – 10) for the stress felt during simulation, and 9 (IQR 7 – 10; p < 0.0001 vs. stress during simulation) for the stress felt during a real cardiac arrest. None of the above ratings was significantly affected by study group, profession, or objective performance measures. Discussion Teams that have to form ad-hoc during a cardiac arrest provide 30 sec less hands-on time during the initial 3 min and delay the first defibrillation by 40 sec when compared Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to teams that had the opportunity to form prior to the cardiac arrest. Our findings support the growing awareness
of a less than optimal adherence to algorithms of CPR [8-14] which partly explains the poor outcome of cardiac arrests [14,20]. Considering the optimal starting conditions (witnessed cardiac arrest in a monitored Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical patient, presence of at least one physician and a nurse, defibrillator available at bedside), the performance of many teams was surprisingly poor regardless whether general practitioners or hospital physicians were Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical involved. If we grant the teams an initial 20 sec for diagnosis and to organise Selleck MK518 themselves, the hands-off Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical times of the preformed teams during the initial 3 min of the arrest were on average 40 sec (i.e. more than 20% of the time available) while the hands-off times
of the ad-hoc teams amounted to 70 sec (i.e. almost 40% of the time available). Immediate defibrillation is a class I recommendation in a witnessed cardiac arrest. Similar to previous work [11,14,21] we observed unnecessary delays in the time to defibrillation. According to recent registry data, a delay in defibrillation of more than 2 min occurs in 30% of in-hospital arrests . PI3K inhibitor In the present study 36% (18 out of 50) of the ad-hoc forming teams, but only 12% (6 out of 49) of the preformed teams delayed their first countershock beyond 2 min. Thus, in addition to patient and hospital related variables identified by previous work  team related issues are important factors to explain delays in the time to defibrillation. Even if dedicated emergency teams exist within a community or institution, such teams are usually not immediately available at the onset of a cardiac arrest.