The lack of amplicons for some target genes is most likely due to the absence of certain genes in some leptospiral strains. Non-pathogenic leptospiral strains do not carry genes that encode the outer membrane lipopoproteins LipL32 and LipL41. Similarly, it has been reported that PCR fragments were not producible for intermediate and non-pathogenic strains when they were tested for the secY, adk and icdA genes [43, 54]. An additional problem is the quality
of the PCR method, since many of them do not amplify genes, even though they are this website present in the organism. The PCR settings must be optimized for intermediate and non-pathogenic strains  and, in a recent study, primers were optimized for all genes to provide greater power for discrimination of Leptospira strains . Our method showed that MALDI-TOF MS can be a useful tool to identify cultured leptospiral strains at the species level. This would be of interest to diagnostic laboratories, because internal controls for leptospiral cultures such as for MAT panels are indispensable. Species confirmation Tozasertib purchase by MALDI-TOF MS is faster and more easily applied as compared with other, more elaborate, molecular typing methods which may be complemented by MALDI-TOF MS techniques. Conclusions The protein spectra database established in this study was built
on a wide variety of well-defined leptospiral strains that represent the major causative agents of leptospirosis in humans and animals, as well as intermediate and non-pathogenic strains. With our established extraction protocol, we were able to reproducibly detect Leptospira species from defined samples as well as from field isolates. Analysis with the software ClinProTools suggested discriminating peaks within the pathogenic species L. borgpetersenii, L. interrogans and L. kirschneri, indicating that it is possible to discriminate certain serovars that belong to the same genomospecies using MALDI-TOF MS. Results Demeclocycline of the mass spectrometry
analysis and the molecular sequence methods correlated well with each other and confirmed the reliability of MALDI-TOF MS in detecting Leptospira species. Acknowledgements We are grateful to Rudy A. Hartskeerl and Ahmed Ahmed from the WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Leptospirosis, Biomedical Research, Royal AZD1480 manufacturer Tropical Institute (KIT) Amsterdam, The Netherlands for helpful scientific advice and sequencing the secY -locus in test samples. We thank Peter Kopp and Ivonne Stamm from IDEXX Vetmed Labor, Ludwigsburg, Germany as well as Enno Luge from the Federal Institute of Risk assessment, BfR Berlin, Germany for technical and scientific advice. We also thank Maria Hauser at the Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority for growing the cultures and providing us with Leptospira strains. We are grateful to Dr. Markus Timke at Bruker Daltonik GmbH for his support.