5% smaller than the theoretical values regardless of the composit

5% smaller than the theoretical values regardless of the composition. Subjected to heating to 250°C, the NP deposits can be regarded as bulk PF-6463922 price metals judged by their lattice constants. Figure 5 Variation in the coalescence temperature with respect to particle composition. Figure 6 Lattice constant as a find more function of heating temperature and size states. (a) Variation in the estimated lattice constant as a function of heating temperature, and (b) Lattice constants at nano and heat-treated states (designated as NP and HT, respectively) compared with the theoretical values (REF). Using Equation 1, the

variations in the estimated particle sizes of all the NP deposits after being coalesced as a function of heating temperature are given in Figure 7. It should be noted that the Scherrer equation assumes the fine particles are strain free. Non-uniform strain causes additional line broadening and gives rise to underestimated crystallite size [32]. This also explains the underestimated diameter for Au NPs prior to coalescence as indicated in Figure 4. Figure 7 illustrates that all the NPs exhibited a particle diameter of about 10 nm at their coalescence temperature. With a higher temperature, the particle sizes of most the NPs increased and reached 20 ~ 30 nm at high temperatures. Remarkably, the Ag NP deposits possessed a greater grain growth rate and the estimated CFTRinh-172 particle diameter after heating to 250°C reached

40 nm, obviously larger than the others. The surface morphologies of the NP deposits after being heated to a specific

temperature (Figure 8) verify the extraordinarily large grains of the heat-treated Ag deposits. This should be prevented because discontinuity and even rupture of NP deposits due to abnormal growth have been witnessed [21]. Figure 7 Variations in the estimated particle size. Figure 8 The SEM images of the heat-treated NP deposits. Figure 9a,b,c illustrates the S2p region of the XPS spectra of the Au, AuAg, and Ag deposits under non-heat-treated (Non-HT) and heat-treated (HT) states, respectively. The binding energy values of XPS peaks are also marked. For all the non-heat treated samples, there is a broad through peak at 161 ~ 163 eV. This probably consists of two components, the 2p3/2 and 2p1/2, separated by approximately 1 eV [34]. After heating to 250°C, this broad peak disappeared for the Au and AuAg deposits, but its intensity remained strong for the Ag samples. The other broad peak located at 168 eV was found in the heat-treated Ag and AuAg deposits. It corresponds to S bonded three O atoms and has been observed in previous reports indicating thiols experienced photo-oxidation [34, 35]. Accordingly, it can be inferred that the interactions between S and Ag were more complicated and stronger than those between S and Au, which resulted in late desorption of thiols from the surface atoms of Ag. S still bonded with the surface atoms of the pure Ag deposits after heating.

Appl Phys Lett 2010, 97:013304 CrossRef 10 Tang AW, Teng F, Qian

Appl Phys Lett 2010, 97:013304.CrossRef 10. Tang AW, Teng F, Qian L, Hou YB, Wang YS: Electrical bistability of copper (I) sulfide nanocrystals blending with a semiconducting polymer. Appl Phys Lett 2009, 95:143115.CrossRef 11. Hardman R, Environ: A toxicologic review of quantum dots: toxicity depends on physicochemical and environmental factors. Health Perspect 2006, 114:165.CrossRef 12. Selivanov EN, Gulyaeva RI, Vershinin AD: Thermal expansion and phase transformations of copper

sulfides. Inorg Mater 2007, 43:573.CrossRef 13. Wang ML, Sun XY, Zheng XY, Li N, Gao XD, Ding BF, Ding XM, Hou XY: Loss and recovery of bistability of organic bistable devices. Org Electron 2009, 10:965.CrossRef 14. Xie www.selleckchem.com/products/azd9291.html M, Aw KC, Langlois M, Gao W: Negative differential resistance of a metal-insulator-metal device NCT-501 chemical structure with gold nanoparticles embedded in polydimethylsiloxane. Solid State Commun 2012, 152:835.CrossRef 15. Bozano LD, Kean BW, Deline VR, Salem JR, Scott JC: Mechanism for bistability in organic memory elements. Appl Phys Lett 2004, 84:607.CrossRef 16. Wang M, Wang Y, Tang AW, Li X, Hou YB, Teng F: Optical properties and self-assembly of Ag 2 S nanoparticles synthesized by a one-pot method. Mater Lett 2012, 88:108.CrossRef 17. Ma L, Pyo S, Ouyang J, Xu Q, Yang Y: Nonvolatile electrical bistability of organic/metal-nanocluster/organic system. Appl Phys Lett 2003, 82:1419.CrossRef 18. Simmons JG, Verderber RR:

New conduction and reversible memory phenomena

in thin insulating films. Proc R Soc Lond A 1967, 301:77.CrossRef 19. Cho B, Song S, Ji Y, Kim TW, Lee T: Organic resistive memory devices: performance enhancement, integration, and advanced architectures. Adv Funct Mater 2011, 21:2806.CrossRef 20. Verbakel F, Meskers SCJ, Janssen RAJ: Electronic memory effects in AR-13324 manufacturer diodes of zinc oxide nanoparticles in a matrix of polystyrene or poly (3-hexylthiophene). Appl Phys Lett 2006, 89:102103.CrossRef 21. Burroughes JH, Jones CA, Friend RH: New semiconductor device physics in polymer diodes and transistors. Nature 1988, 335:137.CrossRef 22. Çakar M, Güllü Ö, Yildirim N, Türüt A: Electrical analysis tuclazepam of organic interlayer based metal/interlayer/semiconductor diode structures. J Electron Mater 1995, 2009:38. 23. Kapoor AK, Jain SC, Poortmans J, Kumar V, Mertens R: Temperature dependence of carrier transport in conducting polymers: similarity to amorphous inorganic semiconductors. J Appl Phys 2002, 92:3835.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions JL designed the study, prepared the device, carried out the electrical measurement. JL and AT wrote the manuscripts. AT, FT, and Y Hou conceived and designed the study. MW performed the TEM and XRD test. XL and YC participated in the fabrication of the device. LL, YN, QL, Y Hu, and YL participated in interpreting the results. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

lactis strains, which would allow finding analogous genes that ha

lactis strains, which would allow finding analogous genes that have similar function but different sequences. Even with DNA sequencing

prices dropping, determining the gene content of dozens of strains by genome sequencing could still be costly. Pan-genome arrays allow querying occurrence of genes in multiple strains more cost-effectively, but genes absent in reference sequences and strongly divergent genes would be missed. Though the presence/absence data can be linked to phenotypes, it cannot account for effects of regulatory control or post-translational modifications. Thus putative gene-phenotype relations should be experimentally PI3K phosphorylation tested by high-throughput techniques such as gene expression analysis. Annotating genes of a genome is essential in CHIR-99021 cell line understanding the genomic properties of any strain. Gene annotation is often based on sequence similarity,

so mistakes in annotating a single gene could propagate to genes of different organisms through annotation by sequence similarity. Therefore identified gene-phenotype relations should be experimentally validated and linked {Selleck Anti-infection Compound Library|Selleck Antiinfection Compound Library|Selleck Anti-infection Compound Library|Selleck Antiinfection Compound Library|Selleckchem Anti-infection Compound Library|Selleckchem Antiinfection Compound Library|Selleckchem Anti-infection Compound Library|Selleckchem Antiinfection Compound Library|Anti-infection Compound Library|Antiinfection Compound Library|Anti-infection Compound Library|Antiinfection Compound Library|Anti-infection Compound Library|Antiinfection Compound Library|Anti-infection Compound Library|Antiinfection Compound Library|Anti-infection Compound Library|Antiinfection Compound Library|Anti-infection Compound Library|Antiinfection Compound Library|Anti-infection Compound Library|Antiinfection Compound Library|Anti-infection Compound Library|Antiinfection Compound Library|Anti-infection Compound Library|Antiinfection Compound Library|buy Anti-infection Compound Library|Anti-infection Compound Library ic50|Anti-infection Compound Library price|Anti-infection Compound Library cost|Anti-infection Compound Library solubility dmso|Anti-infection Compound Library purchase|Anti-infection Compound Library manufacturer|Anti-infection Compound Library research buy|Anti-infection Compound Library order|Anti-infection Compound Library mouse|Anti-infection Compound Library chemical structure|Anti-infection Compound Library mw|Anti-infection Compound Library molecular weight|Anti-infection Compound Library datasheet|Anti-infection Compound Library supplier|Anti-infection Compound Library in vitro|Anti-infection Compound Library cell line|Anti-infection Compound Library concentration|Anti-infection Compound Library nmr|Anti-infection Compound Library in vivo|Anti-infection Compound Library clinical trial|Anti-infection Compound Library cell assay|Anti-infection Compound Library screening|Anti-infection Compound Library high throughput|buy Antiinfection Compound Library|Antiinfection Compound Library ic50|Antiinfection Compound Library price|Antiinfection Compound Library cost|Antiinfection Compound Library solubility dmso|Antiinfection Compound Library purchase|Antiinfection Compound Library manufacturer|Antiinfection Compound Library research buy|Antiinfection Compound Library order|Antiinfection Compound Library chemical structure|Antiinfection Compound Library datasheet|Antiinfection Compound Library supplier|Antiinfection Compound Library in vitro|Antiinfection Compound Library cell line|Antiinfection Compound Library concentration|Antiinfection Compound Library clinical trial|Antiinfection Compound Library cell assay|Antiinfection Compound Library screening|Antiinfection Compound Library high throughput|Anti-infection Compound high throughput screening| to other information sources such as pathway information. This would allow decreasing error propagation introduced by sequence similarity based gene function prediction approaches. Genotype-phenotype matching results show that the largest group of proteins related to phenotypes was hypothetical proteins indicating that gene annotations could still be improved for all 4 reference strains. Genomes of more bacterial strains are sequenced on a daily basis, which shows the critical importance of accurate gene function prediction. Identified gene-phenotype relations would allow more accurately determining functions of many genes, and hence better understanding of genotype- and phenotype-level differences among 38 L. lactis strains. We provide all identified relations as well as complete genotype and phenotype data set (see Additional files). This data set not only serves as a collection of leads to phenotypes, but due to large data size could also be used to test different association methods. Conclusions

Lactococcus lactis has HA-1077 price been extensively studied due to its industrial importance. Here we provide a coherent genotype and phenotype dataset and its interpretation for the Lactococcus species. We integrated for 38 L. lactis strains their genotypic measurements as well as phenotypes derived from 207 different experiments (see Methods) to identify gene-phenotype relations. Our results are publicly available (see also Additional files) and contains many leads into Lactococcus species-wide genotype-phenotype relations that can further be analysed and experimentally validated. These relations could be used to refine functions of genes. As new genome sequences emerge frequently, this would allow annotating gene functions for these new genomes more accurately and predicting phenotypes of new strains based on their DNA sequence.

Table 4 Comparison of results for selected up-regulated genes det

Table 4 Comparison of results for selected up-regulated genes determined by Affymetrix/S score and RQ-PCR. Gene Description Ingenuty Name Affymetrix Probe Set S Score Fold RQ-PCR Network Location Interleukin-8 IL8 211506_s_at 11.393 59.4

± 15.5 See Figure 3 Extra-cellular ATPase, PRIMA-1MET price Na+/K+ transporting, Beta 1 polypeptide ATP1B1 201242_s_at 7.184 4.5 ± 1.8 10 Plasma Membrane Syndecan 4 SDC4 202071_at 8.823 4.0 ± 0.84 5 Plasma Membrane Retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 1 RARRES1 221872_at 6.179 2.4± 0.7 8 Plasma Membrane tumor necrosis factor, alpha-induced protein 3 TNIP1 207196_s_at 9.344 2.0 ± 0.2 See Figure 3 Nucleus nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha NFKBIA 201502_s_at 10.956 4.0

± 1.2. See Figure 3 Cytoplasm EX 527 chemical structure Matrix Metallo-peptidase 7 MMP7 202644_s_at 9.812 2.1 ± 4.2 9 & See Additional file 3 Extra-cellular For each gene ingenuity description, name and Affymetrix probe set, assigned network and cellular location are shown together with the S score and fold RQ-PCR change compared to β-actin control. Chemokine and cytokine responses To further validate the gene transcriptional changes using microarray and RQ-PCR methods, we measured the levels of secretory immunomodulatory proteins in parallel cell supernatants of HCA-7 cells pre- and post-induction with C. jejuni BCE. Table 5 presents the chemokine and cytokine levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory secretory proteins. Consistent with the microarray observations the NVP-BGJ398 nmr pro-inflammatory chemokine CCL20 showed a 12.6-fold increase in levels 6 h. post treatment. IL8 levels were also found to increase, but far more dramatically than CCL20 with a 460-fold induction. HCA-7 colonocytes

are particularly IL8 responsive with post-induction levels of 18.4 ng/ml, an observation that is consistent with previous reports with this cell line [8]. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL1β showed a weak response consistent with the transcriptional response recorded in the microarray study. Pro-inflammatory cytokine IL6 showed a 5-fold increase, whereas the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 remained static. The Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase transcriptional response of the genes encoding IL6 and IL10 did not show marked transcriptional changes but the pathways associated with these immunomodulatory proteins were recognized by IPA and are responsive to NF-κB. Table 5 Cytokine and chemokine levels (pg/ml) pre- and post-induction of HCA-7 cells with C. jejuni BCE for 6 h.   Pre-Induction Post-Induction Fold-Induction IL10 12 (± 2) 15 (± 3) 1.25 IL6 30 (± 3) 150 (± 5) 5 IL1β 20 (± 4) 30 (± 6) 1.5 IL8 40 (± 16) 18,400 (± 400) 460 CCL20 30 (± 6) 380 (± 40) 12.6 Discussion Understanding the pathogenesis of C. jejuni enteric disease is important both because C. jejuni is a major cause of diarrhoeal illness worldwide and because it may serve as a model for ulcerative colitis, the pathology of which it closely resembles [15].

Two types of nanotapered nanowires

were selected: a highl

Two types of nanotapered nanowires

were selected: a Thiazovivin order highly tapered nanowire and a tapered nanowire with a flat head. We found that a greater fraction of the light was reflected and traveled back to the left inside the nanowire. Interestingly, the fraction of light transmission in the tapered structure with a flat head was greater than that in the highly tapered structure. In other words, the light confinement could be increased in the highly tapered structure. The simulation result indicated that our urchin-like microstructure with multiple-tapered nanowires could improve the light confinement and increase the possibility of light amplification, resulting in a higher Q factor for the urchin-like microstructures compared to other nano/microstructures. Figure 4c shows the variation in Selleckchem ARRY-438162 the lasing threshold density as the size of the ZnO microcavities selleck chemicals changed. Note that the larger-sized ZnO microcavities had a lower lasing threshold density than the smaller microcavities because the larger volume of the cavities increased the length of the optical gain. Thus, RL could be easily achieved. In addition, the number of resonance modes clearly increased as the size of the cavities increased. The number of lasing modes was also directly related to the size of the microcavities. Figure 4c also shows the number of lasing modes as a function of the size of the microcavities just above their lasing threshold. For the smallest

microcavities, only four peaks were observed. As the size of the microcavities increased further, the number of lasing modes increased. The finite size of the cavities limited the number of lasing modes as a result of the gain competition between the random lasing microcavities. If the path loop of the cavity mode spatially overlapped other cavity loops, the lasing behavior did not occur. These results were in agreement with the theoretical calculation for RL [29]. Conclusions In conclusion, we reported a simple method for preparing

urchin-like ZnO microlaser cavities via the oxidization of metallic Zn. The hexagonal Zn microcrystals were prepared using vapor-phase transport. After the oxidation of the Zn microcrystals, urchin-like ZnO Celecoxib microstructures were formed, and the mechanism of their crystal growth was proposed. For each individual urchin-like ZnO macrostructure, the laser presented a low threshold and high Q factor because the tapered nanowires could serve as effective optical reflectors to improve the optical confinement in the microstructures. The lasing characteristics such as the lasing mode and threshold were investigated. The results are significant for designing architectural nanotapered structures for advanced light management in other optoelectronic devices. Acknowledgements This research is financially supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan under grant NSC-102-2112-M-006-012-MY3 and the Aim for the Top University Project of the Ministry of Education. References 1.

: Gene expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa #

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MC, Moore RL, Fleshner M: Differential expression of stress proteins in rat myocardium after free wheel or treadmill run training. J Appl Physiol 1999,86(5):1696–701.PubMed 24. Dunbar SL, Tamhidi L, Berkowitz DE, et al.: Hindlimb unweighting affects rat vascular capacitance function. American J Physiol-Heart Circ Physiol 2001,281(3):H1170-H1177. 25. Kass DA, Saeki A, Tunin RS, et al.: Adverse influence of systemic vascular stiffening on cardiac dysfunction and adaptation to acute coronary occlusion. Circulation 1996,93(8):1533–1541.PubMedCrossRef 26. Belz GG: Elastic properties and Windkessel function of the human aorta. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1995,9(1):73–83.PubMedCrossRef 27. Nickel KJ, Acree LS, CB-839 clinical trial Gardner AW: Effects FAK inhibitor of a single

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oxide synthesis increases aortic augmentation index and pulse wave velocity in vivo. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2002,53(2):189–192.PubMedCrossRef 31. Niu A-J, Wu J-M, Yu D-H, et al.: Protective effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on oxidative damage in skeletal muscle of exhaustive exercise rats. Int J Biol Macromol 2008,42(5):447–449.PubMedCrossRef 32. Duan CB, Sun ZJ: Supplementation of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides protection of skeletal muscle from exercise-induced oxidant stress in mice. African J Pharm Pharmacol 2012,6(9):643–647. 33. Jing H, Hong-peng L, Zhou TCL X, Guang-hua L: The effect of LBP on immune function of exhausted swimming exercise in mice. J Liaoning University of TCM 2009,11(8):234–236. 34. Li GH, Katakura M, Maruyama M, et al.: Changes of noradrenaline-induced contractility and gene expression in aorta of rats acclimated to heat in two different modes. Eur J Appl Physiol 2008,104(1):29–40.PubMedCrossRef 35. Maiorana A, O’Driscoll G, Taylor R, et al.: Exercise and the nitric oxide vasodilator system. Sports Med 2003,33(14):1013–1035.PubMedCrossRef 36. Bellien J, Favre J, Iacob M, et al.

Therefore, the weak ultraviolet emission and dominant blue band i

Therefore, the weak ultraviolet emission and dominant blue band in the PL spectrum demonstrate the existence of ZnO and a large number of oxygen vacancies in the as-grown specimen. A comparison

of the hemispherical reflectance of the branched ZnO/Si click here nanowire arrays and a flat silicon wafer is provided in Figure 3d. The reflectance of the arrays is less than 15% over the wavelength range from ultraviolet to the mid-infrared selective HDAC inhibitors region, which is drastically decreased relative to that of the silicon wafer. This significant property suggests that the nanotrees might be a promising candidate of antireflective surfaces or photoelectronics and photocatalysis for sunlight harvest. The ultralow reflectance of the specimen may result from the enhanced light-trapping and scattering for rough surface and large surface area of the nanotree arrays, multiple scattering of light within the hierarchical structure, as well as an effective Wnt inhibitor refractive index (RI) gradient from air (RI ≈ 1.0) through ZnO nanowire array (RI ≈ 2.0) to Si nanowire array and substrate (RI ≈ 3.5) [18]. In addition, the abrupt drop in reflection is originated from band-edge absorption of the specimen [27]. The direct and

indirect bandgaps of the components can thus be estimated by the onset points, which are 397 nm (equal to 3.123 eV) for the direct bandgap of ZnO nanowire branches and 1,221 nm (equal to 1.015 eV) for the indirect bandgap of Si nanowire backbones. In contrast to the Si wafer value 1,213 nm (equal to 1.022 eV) or to the general value of bulk materials, 3.37 eV

for ZnO [7] and 1.12 eV for Si [5], the bandgaps of the as-grown specimen are found to be faintly narrowed down, suggesting Phosphoglycerate kinase ideal components of the object. The small difference may be due to the presence of ionic vacancies and structural defects in the nanotrees, as testified in the PL spectrum. The above results and analysis confirm that branched ZnO/Si nanowire arrays with hierarchical structure can be facilely grown on the silicon substrate in a wafer scale by the cost-effective methods. However, as the procedure includes chemical etching for the silicon backbones and hydrothermal growth of the ZnO branches, different synthesis parameters may cause serious influences on the structure and performance of the ZnO/Si nanowire arrays. For this reason, we systematically study crucial influences of the key parameters on the structure of the objects. First, the influence of etching solution on the silicon backbones is investigated, and the results are shown in Figure 4. We can see in Figure 4a that the Si nanobelt or nanowire arrays orient vertically on the Si substrate when the substrate was immersed into aqueous solution of HF/AgNO3 (5.25/0.02 M) at room temperature for 20 min.

These pictures show two sides of a specimen of the ascending colo

These pictures show two sides of a specimen of the ascending colon dissected at autopsy (A: mucosal side; B: serous side). The macroscopic appearance of the specimen shows diffuse hemorrhage on both serous and mucosal sides, but a lack of any necrotic feature, consistent with a finding of intraluminal bleeding. Discussion PI is an uncommon condition characterized by the presence of multiple cystic or linear gas deposits within the intestinal wall. In adult patients, PI is frequently asymptomatic and detected only incidentally. DuVernoi first described the condition in 1783. Despite increasing recognition of PI with more prevalent use of CT

and colonoscopy, the pathogenesis remains poorly understood, even though the majority of the literature on PI has placed an emphasis on explaining its etiology. PI is frequently asymptomatic in adults and does not require AZD3965 concentration specific therapy unless abdominal pain, emesis, fever, diarrhea or hematochezia is present. Pneumoperitoneum and pneumoretroperitoneum can be present, but are generally considered as complications rather than causes of PI [1]. Peritonitis may occur, but is uncommon, and perforation is typically absent when only mild clinical symptoms are present [1]. Most reported cases of adult PI detail a benign course in response to conservative

management Selleck PLX-4720 with hyperbaric oxygenation or metronidazole. Death may occur in rare cases, typically associated with severe comorbid conditions (e.g., cancer, immunosuppressed status due to chemotherapy, diabetes mellitus, or portal venous air embolism) [2–5], or acute

abdomen followed by bowel ischemia, bowel obstruction, and portal venous gas (PVG) [6]. The cause of Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase death described in fatal PI cases ranges from sepsis to concomitant malignancies, as well as air embolus in the portal vein or colon perforation [2, 5, 7, 8]. To the best of our knowledge, no previous reports have described life-threatening hemorrhage simply due to PI in adults in either the perioperative or non-perioperative period. Surgical management of PI, usually consisting of urgent laparotomy in patients with acute abdomen, remains controversial. While surgery is probably necessary in severe cases, routine utilization of surgical management may be associated with poor prognosis. This determination is complicated by the fact that most studies of PI have described etiology or radiographic findings, but few have addressed clinical management, particularly from a surgical perspective [9–11]. Knechtle evaluated 27 patients with PI and reported the highest mortality rate among PI patients with bowel ischemia who underwent surgery, demonstrating associations of low pH (<7.3), low serum bicarbonate (<20 mmol/L) and elevated serum lactic acid (LA) (>2 mmol/L) with ischemic bowel and mortality [9]. Hawn et al. BMS345541 assessed 86 patients showing PI on CT and reported a mortality rate of 73% among patients with complicated ischemic bowel and 83% in patients with hepatic failure [10].

The observed asymmetry of the hydrogen bonds and their shortening

The observed asymmetry of the hydrogen bonds and their shortening upon reduction of Q A suggests that they play an important role in the energetic stabilization of \( Q_A^ \bullet – \) and the fine-tuning of the electron

transfer rates in the RC (Sinnecker et al. 2006). Fig. 5 CW EPR and ENDOR spectra at Q-band of the primary ubiquinone radical anion \( Q_A^ \bullet – \) in Zn-substituted RCs of Rb. sphaeroides R-26. Note that the experiments were done on fully deuterated quinone in H2O buffer. Top: EPR spectrum with simulation yielding selleck chemicals llc the principal g-tensor components; the insert shows the quinone structure including the orientation of the g-tensor axes. Bottom: 1H ENDOR spectra at four different field positions in the EPR spectrum (top) providing

orientational selection with respect to the g-tensor axes. Note that only protons of the surrounding of the quinone radical anion are detected (matrix line, protons H-bonded to the keto groups). The analysis, together with 2H ENDOR experiments, gave information on the strength and geometry of the hydrogen bonds between protein and quinone that play a crucial role in determining the electronic structure of the primary quinone acceptor in the RC. For further SAHA HDAC order details, see (Flores et al. 2007) The oxygen-evolving complex in plant Photosystem II The key event of oxygenic photosynthesis—light-driven oxidation of water with the release of molecular oxygen—is catalyzed by the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII. The heart of the OEC is an exchange-coupled oxygen-bridged tetranuclear manganese–calcium cluster. Because of low resolution of the present X-ray structure of PSII and the occurrence of radiation damage of the crystals, the structure of this cluster is under see more severe debate at present. Proteasome inhibitor Among the questions to be solved are the oxidation states of the individual Mn ions, their mutual positions and the exchange couplings among them. These features of the electronic structure of the cluster are crucial for understanding the mechanism of

the photosynthetic water splitting process. During the catalytic cycle (Kok cycle), the OEC passes through several distinct redox states (S-states, S0–S4). The S0 and S2 states have a ground state of S = 1/2, and due to the coupling with the 55Mn nuclei (I = 5/2) produce multiline EPR signals. These signals are, however, very difficult to interpret because the four 55Mn nuclei create more than a thousand EPR lines even for a fixed (unique) orientation of the OEC. The anisotropy of the 55Mn HFI tensors and of the g-tensor complicates the powder EPR spectrum of these states even more. To obtain the HFI values of the 55Mn ions, pulse Q-band 55Mn-ENDOR was applied to the S 2 and S 0 states (Kulik et al. 2005, 2007). The simultaneous simulation of the EPR and 55Mn-ENDOR spectra yielded reliable principal values for the HFI tensors (Fig. 6).