(Endocr Pract. 2012;18: 567-578)”
“Chorangiosis is microscopically designated as more than ten terminal capillaries within the villous stroma of the placenta and is mostly related to chronic fetal hypoxia. However, the histogenetic relationship between increased number of terminal villous capillaries and chronic hypoxia has not yet been clarified. Of 665 placentas histologically examined at Saitama Medical University from 2003 to 2010, chorangiosis was found in 58 cases (8.7 %), which were mostly more than 35 gestational
weeks. In addition, low birth weight (less than 2,500 g) infants (74.1 %) and those who suffered from cardiac anomalies, chromosome anomalies, Crenigacestat supplier and single umbilical artery comprised 32.7 % of cases. Placental lesions were associated with chorangiosis involved in infarct (46.6 %), intervillous thrombosis (20.7 %), and marginal hemorrhages MEK inhibitor review (22.4 %). Scanning electron microscopic studies showed narrowing of vessel ostium and disorders of endothelium in the umbilical cord vessel complicated by chorangiosis. Furthermore, in transmission electron microscopic observation, not only the chorionic villi had multiple enlarged vessels within the villous stroma, but we also found
that new capillaries were formed by angiogenesis with endothelial cells derived from fibroblasts under the chronic hypoxic state.”
“Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are being used with increasing frequency in children and young adults. Our aim was to examine the appropriateness and frequency of ICD discharges in children and young adults, to compare the effectiveness of ICDs when placed for primary or secondary prevention, and to provide time-dependent analysis OH-FMK Caspase Inhibitor VI mouse of ICD discharges. Data were collected from seven institutions on 210 patients < 30 years of age
who underwent ICD implantation from October 1992 to January 2007. Median age at implant was 15.4 years with a follow-up average of 3.3 years. Heart disease was categorized as electrical (n = 90, 42%), cardiomyopathic (n = 62, 30%), or congenital heart disease (n = 58, 28%). ICDs are increasingly placed for primary prevention. There are increased appropriate ICD discharges for ICDs placed for secondary prevention (52%) versus primary prevention (14%) at 5 years. There is no difference in the risk of inappropriate discharges between primary and secondary prevention indications. There is an increased risk for inappropriate therapy in the congenital heart disease population. An increasing number of ICDs are being placed for primary prevention in young patients, a marked shift in practice during the last two decades. The benefits of ICDs remain greater in secondary than in primary-prevention patients.