For this species we are resurrecting from synonymy Paramycetophylax Kusnezov, 1956 (Mycetophylax bruchi as type species,
by original designation, with M. cristulatus as its new synonym). Myrmicocrypta emeryi Forel, 1907 is the only attine in which females lack the median clypeal seta and have the antennal insertion areas very much enlarged and anteriorly produced, with the psammophore Lonafarnib ic50 setae arising from the middle of the clypeus and not at its anterior margin as in Paramycetophylax. Notwithstanding its inclusion in Mycetophylax by recent authors, it is here recognized as belonging to a hitherto undescribed, thus far monotypic genus, Kalathomyrmex new genus (Myrmicocrypta emeryi as its type species, here designated). We redescribe workers, gynes and males of all species in the three genera and describe for the first time gynes of Mycetophylax conformis and M. simplex, males of M. simplex and M. morschi, and gynes of P. bruchi. Furthermore we present a key to the workers of the taxa treated here (most formerly included under the name Mycetophylax), a key to workers of the Mycetophylax ROCK inhibitor in the revised sense, SEM pictures and high resolution AutoMontage(C) photographs of the species, along with maps of collection records and a
summary of biological observations.”
“Accurate knowledge of vital anatomical structures, such as the inferior alveolar nerve, mental nerve, and mental foramen, is critical to achieve favorable results during oral surgical procedures
and dental implant placement. Although uncommon, variations in mandibular foramina have been reported and if unnoticed and, as a result, injured, may lead to patient morbidity, neurosensory disturbances, and other undesired complications. We present a case report of identification of an accessory mandibular foramen (AMF) Epigenetics inhibitor encountered during placement of 2 dental implants for a mandibular implant-retained overdenture and demonstrate appropriate management. In addition, we propose a more reasonable terminology for such accessory foramina so as to facilitate communication through common terminology among health care providers. As conventional radiography (periapical and panoramic films) may not allow for proper identification of such anatomical variations, cone-beam computed tomography may be useful in the diagnosis of AMF during treatment planning of dental implants in the mandible.”
“The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) for patients taking an antiplatelet agent is largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the association between antiplatelet agent use before admission with the risk of in-hospital VTE in surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients. A retrospective review of all patients admitted to the surgical ICU at a Level I trauma center over 30 months was performed.
“Purpose: This first-in-human dose-escalation trial evaluated the safety, tolerability, maximal-tolerated dose (MTD), doselimiting toxicities (DLT), pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and
preliminary clinical activity of pictilisib (GDC-0941), an oral, potent, and selective inhibitor of the class I phosphatidylinositol-3- kinases (PI3K). Patients and Methods: Sixty patients with solid tumors received pictilisib at 14 dose levels from 15 to 450 mg once-daily, initially on days 1 to 21 every 28 days and later, using continuous dosing for selected dose levels. Pharmacodynamic studies incorporated F-18-FDG-PET, and assessment of AZD0530 in vitro phosphorylated AKT and S6 ribosomal protein in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and tumor tissue. Results: Pictilisib
was well tolerated. The most common toxicities were grade 1-2 nausea, rash, and fatigue, whereas the DLT was https://www.selleckchem.com/products/stattic.html grade 3 maculopapular rash (450 mg, 2 of 3 patients; 330 mg, 1 of 7 patients). The pharmacokinetic profile was dose-proportional and supported once-daily dosing. Levels of phosphorylated serine-473 AKT were suppressed bigger than 90% in PRP at 3 hours after dose at the MTD and in tumor at pictilisib doses associated with AUC bigger than 20 h . mu mol/L. Significant increase in plasma insulin and glucose levels, and bigger than 25% decrease in F-18-FDG uptake by PET in 7 of 32 evaluable patients confirmed target modulation. A patient with V600E BRAF-mutant melanoma and another with platinumrefractory epithelial ovarian cancer exhibiting PTEN loss and PIK3CA amplification demonstrated partial response by RECIST and GCIG-CA125 Napabucasin criteria, respectively. Conclusion: Pictilisib was safely administered with a doseproportional pharmacokinetic profile, on-target pharmacodynamic activity at dose levels bigger than = 100 mg and signs of antitumor activity. The recommended phase II dose was continuous dosing at 330 mg once-daily.”
“Lung injuries are generally more serious and
cause high mortality in aged humans and animals. Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is known to be readily inducible in alveolar macrophages (AMs) and airway epithelial cells to confer cytoprotection against oxidative stress. We thus investigated whether aging impairs the stress-induced upregulation of HO-1. In this study, we first quantified basal levels of HO-1 expression in lungs from male ICR mice of various ages. Second, young (9-11 weeks) and old (65-66 weeks) mice were subjected to intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and expression of HO-1 in the lungs was quantified at 2, 24 and 72 h. HO-1 expression in bronchiolar epithelial cells harvested by laser capture microdissection (LCM) was also specifically quantified in the two age groups. Third, we examined HO-1 expression in AMs lavaged from 22-week-old and 86-96-week-old male ICR mice in response to LPS for 24 h in vitro. We found that basal expression of HO-1 in the lungs did not differ with age.
In this study, we present data showing that GLYX-13,
an NMDA receptor, glycinesite, partial agonist, also is antinociceptive in the rat formalin model of tonic pain and in the rat constriction nerve injury model of neuropathic pain at doses not inducing ataxia.”
“Introduction: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a high profile drug target for cancer therapeutics due to their indispensable role in cancer progression, maintenance and therapeutic resistance. Restoring wild-type (WT) p53 function is an attractive new therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer due to the well-described powerful tumor suppressor function of p53. As emerging evidence intimately GM6001 clinical trial links p53 and stem cell biology, this approach also provides an opportunity Elafibranor chemical structure to target CSCs.\n\nAreas covered: This review covers the therapeutic approaches to restore the function of WT p53, cancer and normal stem cell biology in relation to p53 and the downstream effects of p53 on CSCs.\n\nExpert opinion:
The restoration of WT p53 function by targeting p53 directly, its interacting proteins or its family members holds promise as a new class of cancer therapies. This review examines the impact that such therapies may have on normal and CSCs based on the current evidence linking p53 signaling with these populations.”
“Tako Tsubo or “stress” cardiomyopathy and its variants are well recognised as potential causes of acute coronary presentations, with manifestations including chest pain, cardiac failure and arrhythmia. Similarly, subarachnoid haemorrhage may be associated with cardiac abnormalities. Tako Tsubo cardiomyopathy is a diagnosis of exclusion with typical left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of epicardial coronary disease, but importantly also after exclusion of an intracerebral insult. We describe a case of unrecognised intracerebral haemorrhage with left ventricular dysfunction consistent with both variant Tako Tsubo cardiomyopathy and subarachnoid haemorrhage
in a patient treated with intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation and associated P5091 chemical structure heparinisation. (Heart, Lung and Circulation 2010;19:476-479) (C) 2010 Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In the present study, we investigated the evolution of life-history traits in the main species of a community, after the arrival of a new competitor. Two parasitoid species, Leptopilina heterotoma and Asobara tabida, are present throughout the Rhone and Saone valleys, whereas a third species, Leptopilina boulardi, is slowly extending its distribution northwards. In the presence of L. boulardi, competing parasitoids experience a higher mortality and lower host availability. Resources should thus be re-allocated between traits according to these new factors. We compared life-history traits of populations of L. heterotoma and A. tabida in areas with and without L. boulardi.
Undetected animals carrying anthelmintic resistant (AR) worms entering the feedlot, could cause major productivity losses. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Members of the PPAR? coactivator-1 (PGC-1) family are central transcriptional coactivators that regulate cell metabolic processes
ranging from mitochondrial biogenesis to oxidative respiration. PGC-1-related coactivator (PPRC1 or PRC), initially identified as a member of the PGC-1 family, is believed to regulate mitochondria biogenesis, respiration pathways, and cell proliferation. However, its physiological role is not clearly understood. Here, we investigate the biological functions of PPRC1 in vivo using PPRC1 deficient mice generated by gene targeting. Results: Homozygous deficient PPRC1 mice failed to form egg cylinders and died after implantation but before embryonic day 6.5, Selleckchem Nocodazole whereas mice heterozygous for PPRC1 were viable, fertile and indistinguishable from their wild-type littermates. Furthermore, PPRC1 mRNA was expressed at the embryonic stage before implantation and was rapidly up-regulated during the first day of embryoid VX-661 datasheet body formation. The PPRC1 mRNA was then subsequently down-regulated, although its precise
function at this stage of development was unclear. Conclusions: This is the first study to suggest a nonredundant role for PPRC1 in mouse early embryonic development. Developmental Dynamics 241:975983, 2012. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Evidence from cell, animal, and human studies demonstrates that alpha 1-adrenergic receptors mediate adaptive and protective effects in the heart. These effects may be particularly important in chronic heart failure, when catecholamine levels are elevated and beta-adrenergic receptors are down-regulated and dysfunctional. This review summarizes these data and proposes
that selectively activating Rabusertib solubility dmso alpha 1-adrenergic receptors in the heart might represent a novel and effective way to treat heart failure. This article is part of a special issue entitled “Key Signaling Molecules in Hypertrophy and Heart Failure.” Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Chromosome segregation depends on the spindle checkpoint, which delays anaphase until all chromosomes have bound microtubules and have been placed under tension. The Mad1-Mad2 complex is an essential component of the checkpoint. We studied the consequences of removing one copy of MAD2 in diploid cells of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Compared to MAD2/MAD2 cells, MAD2/mad2 Delta heterozygotes show increased chromosome loss and have different responses to two insults that activate the spindle checkpoint: MAD2/mad2 Delta cells respond normally to antimicrotubule drugs but cannot respond to chromosomes that lack tension between sister chromatids.
\n\nMethods Of 751 patients referred with the suspected diagnosis of sarcoidosis, from 1995 to1999, 663 (431 female and 232 male) were analyzed and confirmed
as having sarcoidosis stage I-Ill based on biopsy findings obtained by bronchoscopy, open lung biopsy, skin biopsy, Nepicastat cost liver biopsy or splenectomy.\n\nResults Diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made in 663 patients, 431 females and 232 males (ratio 1.9:1). The average age of patients varied from 16 to 67 years, with those below age 50 years being predominant (78.4%). The highest number of patients was diagnosed in stage I of lung sarcoidosis (81.7%). Sarcoidosis was the most common cause of hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy (72.2%).\n\nConclusion find more Biopsy is a necessary diagnostic procedure for pathological diagnosis of sarcoid granuloma before treatment even in patients where clinical, radiological, biochemical and immunological tests imply the diagnosis of sarcoidosis.”
“Purpose: The surgically placed dialysis arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is considered by the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) and the Fistula
First Breakthrough Initiative to be the ideal choice for hemodialysis access. A significant number of newly placed AVFs either slowly or never adequately mature sufficiently to provide for adequate dialysis. The balloon-assisted maturation (BAM) procedure utilizes serial angioplasty to promote and accelerate AVF maturation.
We present a minimally invasive AVF maturation technique utilizing angioplasty, stent-graft, and coil embolization.\n\nMethods: A 41-year-old white woman presented with an nonmaturing AVF with multiple venous outflow channels. An adequately functioning AVF was achieved after 2 treatments including coil embolization, angioplasty, and stent-graft placement.\n\nResults: Adequate thrill and dialysis flow was achieved. Patient has done well during short-term follow-up without further intervention.\n\nConclusions: BAM techniques can be an effective tool to help a dialysis patient achieve an adequately mature AVF. Additional vascular BMS-345541 clinical trial interventional techniques may be utilized to further improve clinical results. For the purpose of this report we call this technique “augmented balloon-assisted maturation,” or aBAM.”
“Mammalian neocortex size primarily reflects the number and mode of divisions of neural stem and progenitor cells. Cortical stem cells (apical progenitors) switching from symmetric divisions, which expand their population, to asymmetric divisions, which generate downstream neuronal progenitors (basal progenitors), start expressing Tis21, a so-called antiproliferative/prodifferentiative gene. Tis21 encodes a small (17.5 kDa), functionally poorly characterized protein and a relatively large (2 kb), highly conserved 30 UTR.
The simultaneous use of multiple biomarkers in a single test algorithm may provide a more comprehensive quantitative representation of the overall complex heterogeneous biology of RA. This article reviews the current management strategies for monitoring RA and the potential impact that multi-biomarker assays may have on RA assessment, which may further improve Prexasertib solubility dmso clinical outcomes.”
“To study the adaptation of an intestinal bacterium to its natural environment, germfree mice were associated with commensal Escherichia coli MG1655. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to identify proteins differentially expressed in E. coli MG1655 collected
from either cecal contents or anaerobic in vitro cultures. Fourteen differentially expressed proteins (>3-fold; P < 0.05) were identified, nine of which were upregulated in cecal versus in vitro-grown E. coli. Four of these proteins were investigated
further for their role in gut colonization. After deletion of the corresponding genes, the resulting E. coli mutants were tested for their ability to colonize the intestines of gnotobiotic mice in competition with the wild-type strain. A mutant devoid of ydjG, which encodes a putative NADH-dependent methylglyoxal reductase, reached a 1.2-log-lower cecal concentration than the wild type. Deletion of the nanA gene encoding N-acetylneuraminate lyase affected MI-503 purchase the colonization and Galunisertib molecular weight persistence of E. coli in the intestines of the gnotobiotic mice only slightly. A mutant devoid of 5′-phosphoribosyl 4-(N-succinocarboxamide)-5-aminoimidazole synthase, a key enzyme of purine synthesis, displayed intestinal cell counts >4 logs lower than those of the wild type. Deletion of the gene encoding aspartate carbamoyltransferase, a key enzyme of pyrimidine synthesis, even resulted in the washout of the corresponding mutant from the mouse intestinal tract. These findings indicate that E. coli needs to synthesize purines and pyrimidines to successfully
colonize the mouse intestine.”
“Naturally occurring nucleotide modifications within RNA have been proposed to be structural determinants for innate immune recognition. We tested this hypothesis in the context of native nonself-RNAs. Isolated, fully modified native bacterial transfer RNAs (tRNAs) induced significant secretion of IFN-alpha from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a manner dependent on TLR7 and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. As a notable exception, tRNA(Tyr) from Escherichia coli was not immunostimulatory, as were all tested eukaryotic tRNAs. However, the unmodified, 5′-unphosphorylated in vitro transcript of tRNATyr induced IFN-alpha, thus revealing posttranscriptional modifications as a factor suppressing immunostimulation.
Cirrhosis was more frequent in Selumetinib the 2010 than in the 2001 and 1995 surveys (16.1% vs. 10.4% and 7.4% respectively; P smaller than 0.0001). A complete pretreatment evaluation was performed
in 57.9% and 50.9% of patients in 2010 and 2001 (P smaller than 0.0001). Liver fibrosis evaluation was more frequent in 2010 than in the 2001 and 1995 surveys (68.7% vs. 62.7% and 28.7%, respectively, P smaller than 0.0001). ConclusionThe care of HCV-infected patients has changed significantly in real life’ through an improvement of pretreatment evaluation before the antiviral introduction and the increased use of antivirals. New HCV therapy combinations including protease inhibitors are warranted to increase the SVR rate.”
“The oxygen binding properties of hemocyanins are regulated on a short time Screening Library cell assay scale by effectors such as L-lactate, urate and protons, and on longer time scales by expression of
the different types of subunits. For Astacus leptodactylus it was shown previously that acclimation to higher temperatures leads to increased levels of a 6-meric hemocyanin species, whereas at lower temperatures the 12-meric form prevails. Here we show that the temperature dependence of the two forms supports the idea, that the maintenance of high affinity towards oxygen is the driving force for the differential expression of these hemocyanins. Furthermore, the two different types of hemocyanin differ not only in the affinity to oxygen, but also with respect to their interaction with L-lactate: while the 12-meric form displays a normal shift in oxygen affinity upon the addition of L-lactate this allosteric regulation is absent in the 6-meric form. Exclusive binding oft-lactate to the 12-meric form was supported by isothermal titration calorimetry. These results indicate that L-lactate binds either at the interface
between the two hexamers or at subunit alpha’ which is responsible for the formation of the 12-mers and is not present in the 6-meric form. Urate has a comparable effect on the oxygen affinity of 6-meric and 12-meric forms and also binds to a similar extent to the oxygenated state as determined by ML323 isothermal titration calorimetry. Thus, urate and L-lactate do not seem to share the same binding sites. Interestingly, urate binding sites with no allosteric effect seem to exist, which is unusual. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxygen Binding and Sensing Proteins. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Aims/hypothesis In patients with type 2 diabetes, reduced levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells have been reported and these have been correlated with disease severity. In this study, we examined a panel of markers widely used to identify progenitor and/or stem cells, and determined their association with disease severity in diabetic patients.
(C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Stress responses play a critical role in the ecology and demography of wild animals, and the analysis of fecal hormone metabolites is a powerful noninvasive method to assess the role of stress. We characterized the metabolites of injected radiolabeled cortisol in the urine and feces of Columbian ground squirrels and validated an enzyme immunoassay for measuring fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) with a 5a-3 beta,
11 beta-diol structure by stimulation and suppression of adrenocortical activity and by evaluation of the circadian pattern of FCM excretion. In addition, we also evaluated the impact of capture, handling, and acclimation to click here the laboratory on FCM. Cortisol is highly metabolized, with virtually none being Rabusertib order excreted, and of the radiolabeled cortisol injected, 31% was recovered in urine and 6.5% in feces. The lag time between cortisol injection and its appearance in urine and feces was 4.5 +/- 0.82 (SE) h and1 7.0 +/- 0.53 (SE) h, respectively. FCM levels varied over the day, reflecting circadian variation in endogenous cortisol. Dexamethasone decreased FCM levels by 33%, and ACTH increased them by 255%. Trapping and housing initially increased FCM levels and decreased body mass, but these reversed within
3 7 d, indicating acclimation. Finally, FCM levels were modestly repeatable over time (r = 0.57) in wild, livetrapped, GDC-0973 order nonbreeding animals, indicating that FCMs provide a measure of the squirrel’s stress-axis state. This assay provides a robust non-invasive assessment of the stress response of the Columbian ground squirrel and will facilitate an integration of its life history and physiology.”
“Traditionally, vision was thought to be useless for animals living in dark underground habitats, but recent studies in a range of subterranean rodent species have shown a large diversity
of eye features, from small subcutaneous eyes to normal-sized functional eyes. We analyzed the retinal photoreceptors in the subterranean hystricomorph rodents Ctenomys talarum and Ctenomys magellanicus to elucidate whether adaptation was to their near-lightless burrows or rather to their occasional diurnal surface activity. Both species had normally developed eyes. Overall photoreceptor densities were comparatively low (95,000-150,000/mm(2) in C. magellanicus, 110,000-200,000/mm(2) in C. talarum), and cone proportions were rather high (10-31% and 14-31%, respectively). The majority of cones expressed the middle-to-longwave-sensitive (L) opsin, and a 6-16% minority expressed the shortwave-sensitive (S) opsin. In both species the densities of L and S cones were higher in ventral than in dorsal retina. In both species the tuning-relevant amino acids of the S opsin indicate sensitivity in the near UV rather than the blue/violet range. Photopic spectral electroretinograms were recorded.
Grazing by herbivores is an important mechanism leading to spatial patterns in the vegetation structure. How different herbivore species and their densities affect vegetation-structure patchiness is, however, poorly understood, and very few studies have simultaneously incorporated the underlying
abiotic patterns. We investigated how different herbivore species and densities affect vegetation-structure patchiness. We conducted an experiment in a semi-natural grassland using horses and cattle in two densities each (0.5 LU/ha and 1.0 LU/ha). Transects of 25 see more m in length were positioned within the study salt marsh, and canopy and canopy height and soil elevation were measured every 25 cm to explore patterns in canopy height. Geostatistical variogram models were fitted to all transects with the elevation as a covariable to correct
for the underlying abiotic patterns. The range (as a measure for patch size of short or tall canopy) and sill (as a measure for heterogeneity) of the variogram model were compared between horses and cattle and between two densities. Canopy height was lower in horse-grazed compared to cattle-grazed treatments and lower in higher herbivore densities. Patch size (range) (tall and short canopy) was significantly larger in horse-grazed treatments, and Crenolanib in vitro a trend of larger patch size was found for higher densities with both herbivore species. While herbivore species had no clear effect on heterogeneity, a trend of a higher heterogeneity (sill) was found in low densities. We found that the two herbivore species and Selleck Dinaciclib densities have differential effects on canopy height, patch size and heterogeneity. Although some of these results were only found as trends, our study has important implications for conservation management of grazed salt marshes. To form
heterogeneous small-scaled vegetation patterns we would generally recommend applying grazing with (1) cattle rather than horses, and (2) at low rather than high densities. We further discuss the relevance of our findings for other grazed ecosystems. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background/Aims: To investigate the possible influence of TNF-alpha gene promoter polymorphisms in conferring a predisposition to PBC patients. Methodology: We performed a meta-analysis of nine articles searched from PubMed up to July 2010 that investigated the association between two TNF-alpha polymorphisms (-308 and -238) and PBC. Results: The data showed no significant association between TNF-alpha -308, -238 gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility to PBC in the global group (OR=0.95, 95%CI=0.80-1.13, p=0.55; OR=1.00, 95%CI=0.65-1.55, p=0.99, respectively). Stratified by sub-groups (European, American, Asian), TNF -308 minor allele, but not -238, was found to be a protective factor in the European population (OR= 0.81, 95%CI=0.67-0.99, p=0.04; OR=0.99, 95%CI=0.55-1.77, p=0.97, respectively).
Experimental data and molecular modeling support endostatin binding to the headpiece of the alpha v beta 3 integrin at the interface between the beta-propeller domain of the alpha v subunit and the beta A domain of the beta 3 subunit. In addition, we report that alpha 5 beta 1 and alpha v beta 3 integrins bind to heparin/heparan sulfate. The ectodomain of the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin binds to haparin with high affinity (K(D) = Akt inhibitor 15.5 nM). The direct binding between integrins and heparin/heparan sulfate might explain why both heparan sulfate and alpha 5 beta 1 integrin are required for the localization
of endostatin in endothelial cell lipid rafts.”
“The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a cognitive screening instrument created with the purpose of overcoming some of the insufficiencies of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The MoCA evaluates more cognitive areas and is comprised of more complex tasks as compared with the MMSE, which makes it a more sensitive instrument
in the detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), a state that often progresses to dementia. In this study we performed an analysis of the psychometric and diagnostic properties of the Portuguese experimental version of the MoCA in a clinical sample of 212 subjects with MCI and several dementia subtypes in a memory clinic setting. Additionally, we performed a Quisinostat mw Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to assess the MoCA’s latent factorial structure. In a clinical population, the MoCA is a valid and reliable instrument with good psychometric properties, revealing high sensitivity in identifying MCI and dementia patients who generally score within the normal range on the
MMSE. By using the parcels method, CFA results showed very good/excellent adjustment indexes. The practical implications of this CFA study allow us to propose a two factor model factorial structure for the MoCA: a first factor designated MEMORY, which includes memory, language and orientation subtests (the latter being closely correlated with the former), and a second factor designated ATTENTION/EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS, comprised of attention, executive functions and visuospacial abilities tasks.”
“The aim of this study was to AZD1208 chemical structure investigate the ratio of the transcription factors T-bet/GATA-3 in patients with allergic asthma. Forty-seven individuals with allergic asthma and 47 healthy control individuals provided 5 ml of anticoagulated peripheral venous blood. Lymphocytes in peripheral blood were isolated by Ficoll and treated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) at a final concentration of 100 mg/l for 48 h. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) levels were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the mRNA levels of both T-bet and GATA-3 were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).