Functional gene arrays (FGAs), such as GeoChip, which

Functional gene arrays (FGAs), such as GeoChip, which contain key genes encoding functional enzymes involved in biogeochemical cycling, have been successfully used for tracking and studying the biogeochemical processes in different

ecosystems, including groundwater and aquatic ecosystems, soil, extreme environments, bioreactor systems, and oil-contaminated waters or soils [18, 19]. Combined with multivariate statistical analyses [20], several systematic experimental evaluations have indicated that GeoChip can be used as a specific, sensitive tool for detecting the functional diversity, composition, structure, and metabolic potential of microbial communities, and correlating Vorinostat molecular weight microbial selleckchem communities to ecosystem processes and functioning [21–24]. We hypothesized that

soil microbial community composition and structure would be altered directly or indirectly by eCO2, and that the BMN673 functional gene groups involved in C and N cycling would be enhanced due to the increase of soil C input under eCO2[25]. To test those hypotheses, we conducted our experiments at the Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve in Minnesota (http://​www.​biocon.​umn.​edu/​). A comprehensive functional gene array, GeoChip 3.0 [26], was used to analyze the function composition and structure of soil microbial communities under both ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations. Some key genes involved in C and N cycling were stimulated under

CO2. This study provides new information for our understanding of the feedback response of soil microbial 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase communities to eCO2. Results Overall responses of microbial C and N cycling genes under CO2 Based on the number of functional genes, Shannon diversity, evenness and dominance, no significant differences were detected in the overall microbial diversity (Additional file 1). Significant (p < 0.05) differences were observed in the abundance of C and N cycling genes between ambient CO2 (aCO2) and eCO2 microbial communities by detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) together with analysis of similarities (ANOSIM), non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance (Adonis) and Multi-Response Permutation Procedure (MRPP). The eCO2 samples were well separated from aCO2 ones by the first axis of DCA, which explained 10.4% and 10.1% for the genes involved in C cycling (Figure 1A) and N cycling (Figure 1B), respectively. These results suggest that most of the functional genes involved in C and N cycling were significantly stimulated, and that the functional composition and structure of soil microbial communities were also altered at eCO2. More details about individual key C and N cycling genes and their associated populations are described below. Figure 1 Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of the samples under ambient and elevated CO 2 bsed on GeoChip 3. 0 data of the genes involved in carbon (A) and nitrogen (B) cycling.

Jeor equation The obese and over

Jeor equation. The obese and overweight state is characterized by Torin 2 nmr chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation as a result of the expanded white adipose tissue compartment, particularly the visceral adipose depot. Adipose tissue from obese individuals is known to be an important endocrine organ capable

of contributing to insulin resistance, persistent inflammation, and metabolic and vascular dysfunction via the perturbed adipokine secretion profile [34]. The collective action of garlic extract standardized for organosulfur compounds, ginger extract standardized for gingerols and shogaols, biotin and chromium in METABO may contribute to antiadipogenic, anti-inflammatory actions in conjunction with metabolic health benefits [20, 21, 36, 37, 49–51]. The bioactive compounds in garlic, ginger, and raspberry in addition to biotin and chromium have been suggested to modulate high-leverage metabolic Etomoxir mw pathways with nutrigenomic signaling, including: NF-kB, PPAR-γ, PPAR-α, orexigens, and aforementioned adipocytokines. It is conceivable that although increased sympathomimetic drive, lipolysis and thermogenesis contributed to the positive

outcomes in body composition, Batimastat mw the interaction of reduced dietary energy intake with exercise and METABO lead to further improvements in the adipokine profile that facilitated improvements in serum triacylglycerol, selective fat loss, skeletal muscle retention and abdominal girth reduction. It would be helpful for future studies to explore the influence of METABO on the systemic adipokine profile to clarify if this is one potential mechanism. Conclusion In recent years, there have been numerous natural products being marketed and sold that claim to contain the right combination Aspartate of vitamins, herbs and foods that can help with weight loss. However, very few of these products undergo finished product-specific research demonstrating their efficacy and safety. In the current study, as an adjunct to an 8-week diet and weight loss program, METABO administration augmented beneficial changes in body composition and anthropometric variables (hip and waist girth) in overweight

men and women, and led to additional benefits on energy levels and food cravings. The placebo group had noticeable beneficial changes in body fat and non-significant improvements in certain metabolic variables as a result of diet and exercise alone, albeit these changes were less robust than in METABO group. METABO was safe and well-tolerated in all subjects, no serious adverse events were recorded, nor were differences in systemic hemodynamics or clinical blood chemistries observed between the two groups. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms by which METABO exerts its weight loss effects and its possible role in regulating adipokine concentrations. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the subjects who participated in the study and Dr.

6 g, K2HPO4 1 85 g, 1% (v/v) reducing solution (30 g/l L-aminothi

6 g, K2HPO4 1.85 g, 1% (v/v) reducing solution (30 g/l check details L-aminothiopropionic acid and Akt inhibitor 30 g/l sodium hyposulfite, dissolved in PBS), and 1 g NH4Cl. Medium C was the same as medium B except the absence of any nitrogen source. Culture was conducted as follows: 0.3 g of defatted flaxseeds was added into each of tubes containing either medium A, B or C (3 ml), which were then sealed with liquid paraffin and autoclaved at 121°C for 15 min. Into the medium, 0.3 g of fresh human feces was added and incubated at 37°C for 72

h. Supernatant of the cultures was then inspected for the appearance of END. Collection and processing of fecal samples Initially, fresh fecal specimens (ca. 4.0 g each), obtained from 28 healthy young subjects (fourteen females and fourteen males, 22-33 years old), were suspended in 20 ml sterile phosphate buffer saline (PBS, 2.6 g l-1 KH2PO4, 1.85 g l-1 K2HPO4, PH 7.4) and 2 ml such fecal suspension was transferred to 20 ml medium, followed by incubation at 37°C for 36 h. During the fecal collection and culture preparation, no strictly anaerobic techniques or instruments were used. The fecal specimen that we used for END production was from a 33 years old female. High-performance liquid chromatography

(HPLC) The HPLC system consisted of Agilent 1200 series HPLC selleck screening library apparatus (Agilent Technologies, USA), including high-pressure binary-gradient solvent-delivery pump, DAD detector, autosampler, thermostat column compartment and chemstation (9.01 edition). Niclosamide Zorbax SB-C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) was used to analyze all of the samples. Mobile phase consisted of

water (A) and acetonitrile (B) in a linear gradient change from 100% A to 50% A and 50% B in 30 min. Detection wavelength was 280 nm, and the temperature of the column oven was 25°C with a flow rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Calibration of the END and SECO curves The stock solutions of END standard (1.98 mg ml-1) and SECO standard (175.5 μg ml-1) were prepared by accurately weighing and transferring each of them into a volumetric flask (1 ml) and dissolving it in methanol. Solutions for END calibration (0.0198 ~ 1.98 mg ml-1) and SECO calibration (175.5 ~ 2.74 μg ml-1) were prepared by dilution of the stock solutions with methanol, with six dilution series being analyzed (1.98, 0.99, 0.396, 0.198, 0.099, 0.0198 mg ml-1) for END calibration and seven dilution series being analyzed (175.5, 87.75, 43.86, 21.94, 10.97, 5.48, 2.74 μg ml-1) for SECO calibration. For each calibration curve, independent dilutions were analyzed. The calibration equation of END was obtained by plotting HPLC peak areas (Y) versus the concentration of calibrators (X, mg ml-1), which was as follows: Y = 4433.46 X + 63.86 (R2 = 0.9999), with a good linearity over the range from 0.0198 mg ml-1 to 1.

- CAIRO 3 phase III trial showed that

- CAIRO 3 phase III trial showed that bevacizumab and de-escalated

chemotherapy maintenance administrated after chemotherapy and bevacizumab induction significantly improves OS comparing to a treatment holiday strategy [45]. These studies do not allow a clear indication on what is the best option between buy PCI-32765 treatment holiday (defined as pause from all treatment) and chemotherapy-free interval with a period of maintenance therapy, and more prospective trial are warranted. Conclusions The role of rechallenge therapy in third-line or fourth-line setting in mCRC is not defined but it could be a possibility for fit patients who do not have any other valid Angiogenesis inhibitor options. Few clinical studies evaluated the role of targeted therapies rechallenge and up to date there are no convincing BMS-907351 order predictive factors suggesting which drug should be readministered. This choice should be based on several reasonable factors: best response to prior treatment before progression (prolonged stable disease, partial response or complete response), residual toxicity (especially in case of oxaliplatin reintroduction), duration of treatment holiday. In our opinion, intermittent

treatment could be an important strategy in management of mCRC patient when there is not the purpose of gaining an important tumour shrinkage, for avoiding cumulative toxicity and for maintaining chemotherapy sensitiveness even Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) if there is not a clear evidence in prolonging OS compared to the intensive treatment. Moreover, few clinical studies assessed the role of rechallenge in the era of targeted therapy and no studies evaluated the activity of bevacizumab as a rechallenge therapy (both as a monotherapy or in combination with standard chemotherapy) so far. However,

it has been demonstrated that targeted therapy could enhance sensitivity to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy [46]. Brite and TML study showed a benefit in the use of bevacizumab beyond disease progression. However, in this case, we cannot regard to bevacizumab administration as a real rechallenge, as there was no treatment interruption after disease progression or any intervening therapy. Further clinical studies should enquire the role of bevacizumab retreatment and the importance of angiogenesis control in heavily pretreated mCRC patients as a possible mechanism of restoring sensitivity to re-administration of standard chemotherapy.

Henoch–Schönlein disease is another disease in this category, but

Henoch–Schönlein disease is another disease in this category, but unfortunately we were not able to obtain specimens from these patients in this study. On the other hand, however, it was relatively difficult to discriminate between lupus nephritis and IgAN by only using the value of the IgA–uromodulin complex; this was probably PI3K Inhibitor Library cell line because of their similarity in terms of the histopathological development of the lesion, such as glomerular IgA deposits and glomerular vasculitis. However, IgAN can be easily discriminated from lupus nephritis based on serological

examination such as anti-nuclear antibody, anti-DNA antibody and compliment levels. Thus, the difficulty of discriminating between IgAN and lupus nephritis by our method does not seem to be a crucial disadvantage for clinicians. As mentioned Daporinad order earlier, the value of the IgA–uromodulin complex tends to be higher not in inactive IgAN having no hematuria but in the earlier phase of the disease in which inflammatory activity is still active. This could be an advantage because the combined treatment with tonsillectomy

and glucocorticoid pulse therapy which can potentially prevent patients from end-stage renal failure is only effective if the intervention can be conducted in the early stage of the disease. In this sense, the value of IgA–uromodulin should be helpful for the selection of appropriate patients for whom this type of combined ALK inhibitor therapy could be beneficial [10–13]. It is needless to say that non-invasive measurement is more desirable than invasive in order to reach an exact diagnosis or selection of the therapeutic measurement. In fact, hesitation in performing renal biopsy often causes a delay in diagnosis and initiation of treatment in managing patients having asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria. The IgA–uromodulin complex, especially compared to total SPTLC1 urine protein, could effectively detect IgAN by differentiating it from other glomerular

diseases. Its value is also supportive in selecting appropriate patients for whom the combined tonsillectomy and glucocorticoid pulse therapy is likely to be effective to avoid further deterioration of IgAN pathology. Although renal biopsy may be unavoidable to reach a definite diagnosis, it should be still worthwhile to test the IgA–uromodulin complex prior to these techniques because of its benefits and easy-to-conduct nature. IgAN is one of the most frequent causes of end-stage renal diseases. Furthermore, the beginning of IgAN is subjectively asymptomatic but only symptomatic in the urinalysis. Moreover, as early treatment intervention is necessary to obtain clinical remission [24], detection of IgAN in its early stage is very important.


GI Tipifarnib ic50 supervised all the experiments, interpreted the data, and wrote the paper. LR conceived the study and performed the SEM analyses. MS and GN carried out and interpreted the TEM analyses. KB and BGS performed the ALD deposition. AI synthesized the nanostructured Si template. VP supervised the whole project. All

authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Electrochemical energy storage in the ultracapacitor devices is emerging as a frontline technology for high-power applications ranging from modern portable electronics to LXH254 solubility dmso electric automotive. A battery-supercapacitor hybrid energy system is a power source that can meet the peak power demands in camera flashes, pulsed lasers, and computer systems back-up as well as electric propulsion in diverse industrial and vehicular transport applications. Among the materials systems, structured carbons which store charges as an electric double layer (EDL) in liquid electrolyte medium are widely studied with a focus on overcoming the energy-density limitation [1]. The materials systems which show capacitive function based on redox reactions are the insertion-type metal oxides and doped-conducting polymers capable of high energy-density storage [2, 3]. The conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole

(PPy), Alisertib cell line poly(3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), and polyaniline (PANI) which undergo redox processes equivalent of doping and dedoping of electrolyte ions as means of energy storage are being aggressively studied. These polymers exhibit pseudocapacitance properties due to presence of charge transfer reactions. The other most widely studied materials are the metal oxides RuO2, MnO2, V2O5, NiO, and Co3O4 which show highly capacitive behavior due to reversible and fast surface redox reactions with

electrolyte ions [2, 4]. In the recent years, conducting polymers with a nanoporous morphology and as nanocomposites with metal-oxides have emerged as the materials system of great potential for high energy-density storage. Electrodes based on these materials structured at the nanoscale enable many-fold enhancements of the electroactive Orotic acid surface and interface with electrolyte facilitating absorption, ingress, and diffusion of electrolyte ions which being the main energy storage units could lead to increased energy and power density of supercapacitor devices. The high surface area morphology in conducting polymers is attained by creating variations in its nanostructure like nanoporous [5], nanofibers [6, 7], nanowires [8], nanobelts [9], and by size-selective nanopores in the context of carbons [10]. Most metal oxides are electrically resistive in character and the redox reactions here are limited to the surface regions.

The organic solvent containing nanoparticles and monomers (methyl

The organic solvent containing nanoparticles and monomers (methyl methacrylate with styrene) was subjected to stirring and ultrasonic homogenization. To prevent nanoparticle aggregation during the polymerization process, we used the pre-polymerization method at 75°C because the nanoparticles had different affinities to the monomer and polymer. Finally, the composite was synthesized selleck chemicals llc in situ by radical polymerization. The polymerization of methyl methacrylate with styrene (in the mass ratio of 20:1) proceeded for over 10 h (in a temperature gradient mode that progressed from 55°C to 110°C) in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (10−3 mol/L). The obtained

solid composites had 0.001%, 0.003%, 0.005%, and 0.01% volume concentrations of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in MMAS. Importantly, the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles generally had a thick layer of acids [36, 39] surrounding them to prevent aggregation of the nanoparticle. In our case, the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles had a monolayer of oleic acid that allowed the nanoparticles to exhibit their specific optical properties. UV–vis spectroscopy Room-temperature optical absorbance spectra of pure MMAS (Figure 3, black curve) and of the composites were obtained using a Varian Cary 5000I spectrophotometer

(Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA) over the wavelength range of 300 to 1,500 nm. These spectra allowed the derivation of the absorbance Lazertinib spectra for Fe3O4 nanoparticle arrays (Figure 3, color curves). Figure 3 shows the absorbance values (Abs) and the absorption Benzatropine coefficients

(α = (Abs × ln 10)/l, where l = 7.95 mm is the length of the composite) measured at a maximum radiation intensity of 1 μW/cm2. Figure 3 Absorbance spectra for the MMAS and Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticle array. The optical absorbance spectra for pure MMAS and Fe3O4 nanoparticle arrays with 0.001%, 0.003%, 0.005%, and 0.01% volume concentrations. z-Scan experiments Because they have absorption bands of 380 to 650 nm, Fe3O4 nanoparticles should exhibit an optical response upon external radiation with wavelengths in this band [40]. To detect the optical response of the nanoparticles contained in the composite (0.005% nanoparticle volume concentration), we used the standard z-scan technique [41]. This technique enabled the analysis of changes in the absorption coefficient Δα(I) and refractive index Δn(I) of the composite and pure MMAS, which were induced by weak optical radiation with different intensities 0 to 0.14 kW/cm2. For radiation sources, we used semiconductor lasers of continuous wave (cw) radiation with wavelengths of 442 nm (blue) and 561 nm (yellow) providing maximal intensities of 0.07 and 0.14 kW/cm2. Lenses with focal lengths of 75 mm provided the beam waists ω 0 = 102 and 110 μm for blue and yellow radiation (Figure 4b). The length (L) of Salubrinal mw experimental samples of the MMAS and the composite was 2.7 mm (inset in Figure 3).

Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 2011, 536:297 19 Akselrud LG, Zavalii PY, G

Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 2011, 536:297. 19. Akselrud LG, Zavalii PY, Grin YN, Pecharski VK, Baumgartner B, Wolfel E: Use of the CSD program package for structure determination from powder data. click here Mater Sci Forum 1993, 133–136:335.CrossRef

20. Tatarinova LI, Auleitner YK, Pinsker ZG: Electron-diffraction study of GaSe. Sov Phys Crystallogr 1956, 1:426. 21. Benazeth S, Dung NH, Guittard M, Laruelle P: Affinement sur monocristal de la structure du polytype 2H du séléniure de gallium GaSe forme β. Acta Cryst C 1988, 44:234.CrossRef 22. Balyts’kyi OO: Fracture of layered gallium and indium chalcogenides. Mater Sci 2005, 41:839.CrossRef 23. Peng H, Meister S, Chan CK, Zhang XF, Cui Y: Morphology control of layer-structured gallium selenide nanowires. Nano Lett 2007, 7:199.CrossRef Competing interest The

authors declare that they Small molecule library concentration have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions OIA carried out the synthesis of nanocomposites. PYuD participated in XRD measurements and structure refinements. VPS supervised the work and finalized the manuscript. OAB designed the experiment, participated in the structural investigation and drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have been intensively studied in the last decade due to their novel physical properties and potential applications in high-performance devices, such as field-effect transistors, lasers, photodetectors, and photovoltaic Sapanisertib in vivo devices [1–5]. Among them, InAs NWs possess excellent electron transport properties such as high bulk mobility, small effective mass, and low ohmic contact resistivity, which can be used for making high-performance electronic devices such as high-mobility transistors [6–8]. For their device applications, it is important

to understand the physical properties GNA12 of these InAs NWs, including phonon scattering information. Although NWs with low defect density have been reported, many NW material systems suffer from various types of planar defects, predominantly rotational twins and twinning superlattices, alternating zinc-blende (ZB)/wurtzite polytypes, as well as point defects [9–12]. Raman scattering, a nondestructive contactless characterization technique, provides an effective approach to probe phonon properties. Combined with advanced confocal microscopy, Raman scattering can be well used to investigate the phonon properties of single NWs with a spatial resolution of roughly half the excitation wavelength. Phonon energies, scattering cross sections, and symmetry properties of optical phonons are determined by analyzing inelastically scattered light, providing information about crystal structure and composition, electronic properties, and electron–phonon and phonon-phonon interactions [13].

Approximately 20% of adolescents and children are overweight Mor

Approximately 20% of adolescents and children are overweight. Moreover, 30% of those who are overweight actually fulfill the criteria of obesity. The epidemic of obesity results in substantial economic burden. It is currently responsible for 2-8% of healthcare costs and 10-13% of deaths in various parts of Europe [1]. Being overweight is a well-established risk factor of many chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases [2]. Survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

(ALL) are at substantially increased risk of developing obesity [3–5]. The most common explanations involve late effects of chemo-and radiotherapy, treatment with corticosteroids, Eltanexor supplier altered life style, with prolonged

periods of relative immobility and decreased energy expenditure. Leptin is a hormone synthesized mostly by white adipose tissue. Its structure is similar to cytokines. It plays a role of peripheral signal informing of the energy storage and thus participates in the long-term regulation of appetite and the amount of ingested food [6]. Plasma levels of leptin depend directly on adipose tissue mass and correlate with body mass index (BMI) [7]. Central and peripheral effects of leptin are mediated by leptin receptors located on cell surface [8]. Several isoforms of long selleck compound form and short forms of leptin receptors are expressed in humans. The long form of leptin receptor is expressed primarily in the hypothalamus, and the short forms of leptin receptor are typical for peripheral tissues. Soluble leptin receptor is a unique form, which consists solely of extracellular domain of membrane leptin receptors [9]. By binding to this receptor, leptin delays its clearance from circulation [10]. This results in increased leptin levels and bioavailability and, as a consequence, potentiates its effect [11]. On the other hand, the plasma levels of soluble leptin receptors correlate with density of the leptin receptors on cell membranes [12]. In obese children with no TGF-beta inhibitor comorbidities the levels of leptin are

higher and the levels of soluble leptin receptor are lower than in non-obese children [13]. Therapy of ALL (chemo- and/or radiotherapy) may permanently modify the secretion of leptin and levels of check details leptin receptors [5]. Among the hereditary risk factors, the polymorphisms of leptin or leptin receptor genes provide a good opportunity to study the relationship between ALL and overweight status. To our knowledge there were no studies investigating polymorphisms of leptin and leptin receptor genes and their products in ALL survivors. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the polymorphisms of leptin and leptin receptor genes and plasma levels of leptin and leptin soluble receptors in survivors of childhood ALL.

For the pre-registration period, from January 2002 to April 2008,

For the pre-registration period, from January 2002 to April 2008, click here we accessed the OR information system to retrieve the list of patients who underwent emergent

laparotomy and fulfilled our study criteria. The medical and surgical data of these patients were then reviewed. Fifty patients (survival vs. late death, 39 vs. 11) enrolled for further analysis (Figure 1). Figure 1 Flowchart for the selection of the studied patients. Demographic data, clinical profile, laboratory data, and radiologic reports were all evaluated by two surgical residents and two attending surgeons. Patients’ selleck chemicals identification, mechanism of trauma, initial status

in the ED, initial laboratory data, transfusion volume, status when leaving the ED, injury severity score (ISS), revised trauma score (RTS), surgical conditions, significant ICU interventions, diagnosis, and outcome were all extracted for further analysis. All patients were categorized into 2 groups: the survival group (n = 39) and the late death group (n = 11). Comparisons between these 2 groups were performed first, and significant factors from the univariable analysis were further analyzed in a multivariable analysis. Statistical analysis This analysis used the SPSS statistical software package, version 20.0. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to evaluate numerical variables, and either learn more the χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test was used for nominal data. Logistic regression was used for the multivariable analysis. Significance was defined as p < 0.05. Results Demographic data and clinical conditions upon ED arrival The demographic data and initial status when the patients arrived at the ED were analyzed and are summarized in Table 1. The initial body temperature, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) less than 8, RTS, initial cardiopulmonary and cerebral resuscitation (CPCR), pH, and base excess (BE) were all noted with statistical significance. In addition, the total numbers of laparotomies were similar between the two groups. Table 1 Demographic data and initial ED condition of patients

  Survival (mean±SD, n-=39) Late death (mean±SD, n=11) p Gender (M/F) 30/9 10/1 n.s. Age Cell Penetrating Peptide (y/o) 33.3 ± 4.98 42.8 ± 13.0 n.s. Transfer (Y/N) 27/12 7/4 n.s. Time from accident (min) 162 ± 46.4 136 ± 53.1 n.s. Blunt injury (Y/N) 35/4 9/2 n.s. BT (°C) 36.0 ± 0.41 35.0 ± 0.83 0.017 HR (/min) 111.3 ± 8.52 100.5 ± 25.5 n.s. RR (/min) 21.8 ± 2.44 21.1 ± 4.28 n.s. SBP (mmHg) 90.1 ± 12.0 76.8 ± 28.2 n.s. DBP (mmHg) 57.8 ± 8.68 43.2 ± 20.9 n.s. GCS < =8 (Y/N) 7/32 6/5 0.023 RTS 6.31 ± 0.45 4.89 ± 1.24 0.032 CPCR at ED (Y/N) 0/39 3/8 0.008 Hb (g/dl) 9.98 ± 0.83 9.08 ± 1.90 n.s. pH 7.29 ± 0.03 7.09 ± 0.13 0.004 HCO3 (meq/l) 18.6 ± 1.42 16.6 ± 0.13 n.s. BE (mmol/l) −7.96 ± 1.65 −13.2 ± 4.16 0.026 INR 1.72 ± 0.22 2.21 ± 0.68 n.s. ISS 30.4 ± 4.70 32.1 ± 9.04 n.s.