Massive green branch removal and damage to trees can still be obs

Massive green branch removal and damage to trees can still be observed, however (Fig. 2), since the removal of deadwood is allowed. Currently, nine permanent villages and more than a hundred secondary and herding settlements are present in the Park (Stevens, 2013), with 6221 local residents and 1892 head of livestock

(Salerno et al., 2010) (Table 1). We collected data on forest structure and species composition in 173 sample plots during two field campaigns in 2010 and 2011. The plots were randomly distributed ABT-263 solubility dmso within the forest areas in a GIS and then mapped in the field. To detect forest areas, we used a land cover map obtained from a classification of a Terra Aster satellite image taken in February 2006 (Bajracharya et al., 2010). We then used square plots of 20 m × 20 m for the tree (Diameter at the Breast Height – DBH ≥ 5 cm) layer survey, and square subplots of 5 m × 5 m were randomly located within the tree plot for the regeneration (DBH < 5 cm and height > 10 cm) and shrub layers. For all trees, we recorded species, total height, DBH, and species

and density for regeneration and shrubs. The following stand descriptors EGFR inhibitor review were computed for each survey plot to be used in the analyses: tree density, basal area, average DBH, maximum DBH, tree diameter diversity index (Marzano et al., 2012 and Rouvinen and Kuuluvainen, 2005), and Shannon species diversity index (Table 2). Topographic variables

such as elevation, slope, and heat-load index were derived from the NASA/METI ASTER Global Terrain Model, with a geometric resolution of 30 m and vertical root mean square error (RMSE) of about 9 m. We calculated heat-load index (McCune and Keon, 2002) in a GIS and used it as a proxy variable for solar radiation. Anthropogenic variables (forest proximity to buildings, trails, and tourist lodges) were derived Dichloromethane dehalogenase from thematic maps (Bajracharya et al., 2010) and computed using horizontal-Euclidean distance, slope distance and accessibility time, in order to assess possible effects of topographic features. Accessibility time was estimated by dividing the DEM-computed slope distance by the average walking speed (Tobler, 1993). These data allowed estimation of the effect of forest, understory vegetation, and terrain roughness in reducing off-trail walking speed for wood gathering. We gathered summary statistics on tourism activities and fuelwood consumption from previous studies on the Khumbu valley (Salerno et al., 2010) for multivariate statistical analyses. These tests examined the relationships among environmental variables (topographic and anthropogenic) and forest structure and species composition. Three data sets were central for ordination analyses: (i) forest structure (6 variables × 167 plots); (ii) species composition (22 species × 173 plots); (iii) environmental variables (12 variables × 173 plots).

The number of lymphocytes, T-cells and PHA responsiveness are exa

The number of lymphocytes, T-cells and PHA responsiveness are examples of parameters useful for the evaluation of cell-mediated immunity and T-cell-related functions at bedside. However, abnormalities may not always be detected through such tests in all diseases, such as those involving STAT malfunctions, so caution

is necessary [38]. In addition, immunodeficiencies in which T-cell dysfunction is not important (eg. autoinflammatory diseases, polymorph abnormalities, complement abnormalities, slight T-cell immunodeficiency) were omitted from the list of indications for Palivizumab use, but as research progresses and risks for aggravated RSV infection are clarified, it will be necessary PARP inhibitor to review these current guidance again. In general, in the early recovery stages after transplantation and chemotherapy, when the level of immunosuppression and myelosuppression is still high, it may be thought that the risk of RSV

exposure is low during hospitalization. On the other hand, if RSV does happen to be transmitted to patients in such an advanced immunocompromised state, the risk of severe disease even to the point of death is considerable. In addition, most RSV infections in adults present with mild or even no symptoms, so the risk of infection from an adult during times when it is prevalent cannot be completely GABA receptor inhibition prevented. That is why a section on preventing RSV infection during hospitalization was included in this guidance above. Therefore, it is important to be thorough in taking basic measures to prevent infection, considering the risk of infection, regional prevalence of RSV and the conditions and numbers or visitors, and to formulate a prevention plan. At the present time, while the prevention of RSV using Palivizumab in those with immunodeficiencies and Down’s syndrome has been Dichloromethane dehalogenase approved in Japan before anywhere else in the world, there is currently insufficient evidence of efficacy and safety of its use. Thus, the importance of collecting information

on Palivizumab use and reporting our experience with this antibody in our country to the international community cannot be overemphasized. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to the following doctors for their expert advice in preparing these guidelines. Dr. Katsuhiro Asonuma, Kumamoto University Hospital, Transplantation Department; Dr. Shinya Okamoto, Kyoto University Hospital, Pediatrics; Dr. Atsushi Kikuta, Fukushima Medical University Hospital, Clinical Tumor Center, Pediatrics Oncology Department; Dr. Katsuyoshi Yasu, Saitama Children’s Medical Center, Hematology and Oncology Department; Dr. Akihiko Saito, Niigata University Medical & Dental Hospital, General Research, Pediatrics; Dr. Shinichi Takatsuki, Toho University, Medical Center, Omori Hospital, Pediatrics; Dr. Mizue Tanaka, National Center for Global Health and Medicine Center Hospital, Pediatrics; Dr.

7–97 7%) with a ratio effect of comparable effect size (1 7%) wit

7–97.7%) with a ratio effect of comparable effect size (1.7%) with larger SD (2.97%). However, considering the similar size of the overall accuracy and distance effects in relation to Price et al. (2007), in our study the .1% between group

ratio effect difference we found can be considered practically zero. This is confirmed by the fact that the bootstrap 95% confidence interval of the non-symbolic comparison ratio effect was clearly focused on zero (see Fig. 3.), the very small confidence intervals were approximately symmetric around zero and SEs were very small, about .4%. All the above suggests that there was not much variability or directional bias in our data and that there was not even an indication of a difference in the ratio effect between the groups. Fourth, regarding the symbolic magnitude

comparison task the mean of the between group difference was 2% and the SD of the data was about 5.71%. The DD group showed a smaller Dabrafenib price absolute value distance effect than the control group (3.26% vs 5.24%). Crucially, DD actually showed slightly better performance on the task than the controls while RTs were practically identical. This makes it unlikely that DD had impaired access to MRs in this task. Nevertheless, in the data from the Arabic number comparison task of Mussolin et al., 2010a and Mussolin et al., 2010b the overall mean distance effect (calculated for all four ratios used; see ibid. Table 2) was actually exactly the same in the Erastin concentration control and DD groups (2.76%) and the difference between the most extreme distance levels was also the same in both groups (8.3%). The DD and the control

group showed a difference because the closest levels of distance differed more in the DD than in the control group. However, this means that the DD group was .6% less accurate at the closest level of distance while it was actually 1.1% more accurate than the controls at the second closest level of distance. The difference between the groups was 1.7% (controls: 2.7%; DD: 4.4%) and the SD of the data was about 1.75% (this is not very clear as the table reports exactly the same standard deviation values for both groups which is probably a mistake). Hence, the group difference was .97SD. For our 12 subjects such an effect size would give Power > .99. (It is to note that crucial Histidine ammonia-lyase analysis results in Mussolin et al. (2010) relied on trials collected from 5 different stimulus formats (5 × 24 = 120 trials for each level of distance) rather than from an individual stimulus format.) However, we only measured a 2% (.33SD) between group difference in the distance effect. In addition, as noted above, the somewhat higher accuracy in the DD than in the control group also makes it unlikely that our DD group had problems with accessing the magnitude of single Arabic digits. Fifth, it is important to emphasize the difference between the robustness (large effect size) of WM and inhibition results in contrast to MR-related results.

The mean squared error of rˆ is equivalent to 1/η  2 Assuming th

The mean squared error of rˆ is equivalent to 1/η  2. Assuming the normal distribution for rˆk, each σk   is approximated as ¼ of the 95% confidence interval of rˆk (in brackets below) by: equation(3) σk(rˆk,Nk)=14tanhz+1.96Nk-3-tanhz-1.96Nk-3,where equation(4) z=12log1+rˆk1-rˆk,( buy Cyclopamine David, 1938) and Nk   is the number of degrees of freedom for a time series of length n  , reduced by the band pass filter to: equation(5) Nk=2ΔTTc1-ΔTTc2(nk-2),( Yan et al., 2004) where ΔTΔT is the time step and Tc  1 and Tc  2 are the band pass times (40 and 160 h, respectively). Although there is autocorrelation in the time series, subsampling at the decorrelation

time causes a negligible change in N  . Each σk  , η  2, rˆk, and rˆ is a function of l, the lead or lag time

between τ and SST. For model correlation Rˆ (model terms represented by capital letters), Eq. (2) reduces because there is a single complete time series, i.e. K   = 1. When comparing between observations and model, the greatest magnitude of the lagged observed and modeled correlation ( rˆ and Rˆ respectively) is selected and denoted r and R, and their associated lead times l and L. For all buoys, r is negative ( Figs. 3 and 4) meaning that increased wind stress leads decreased SST. Lead c-Met inhibitor time l   has an observational uncertainty ηl2, calculated by an application of Eq. (2) to lead time where equation(6) ηl2=∑k=1k1σlk2,and the standard deviation for lead time, σl  , has to be estimated empirically. In order to examine σl   for the buoy observations, each lead time l   associated with an individual time series k   (i.e. the time at which rˆk is greatest in magnitude) is subtracted from the mean l   at buoys along its longitude. Shorter time series tend to result in higher deviations

from meridional mean of l  , and the relationship between time series length and lead time variability is even more clear when analyzing artificially truncated model runs ( Fig. 5). Assuming that the record length and standard Loperamide deviation relationship from the observational data is approximated by the model, an exponential fit to the model relationship between standard deviation in l   and record length ( Fig. 5) is used as an approximation of σl   for lead time uncertainty ηl2 (Eq. (6)). Because all model time series have a record length of 2 years, the standard deviation of the estimated error in model lead time, σL, is a constant 2.16 h ( Fig. 5). The uncertainty in forcing is estimated by the sensitivity of model to the blended wind product at each buoy, using the twenty experiments with different wind products and the same model physics (Table 2): equation(7) φ2=1n∑i=120(Ri-μR)2,φ2=1n∑i=120(Li-μL)2,where each i is an experiment forced with a different blended wind, and μ is a mean value over years 1.5–3.5 of the 20 blended wind experiments.

(2) is completely defined by its indices – repeated requests for

(2) is completely defined by its indices – repeated requests for the same operator can be served from disk or RAM using the index array as a database record identifier. Parallelization is straightforward at both the propagation [19] and the housekeeping stages – individual operators in the Hamiltonian can be generated independently,

there are 625 independent integrals in the relaxation superoperator [16] and hundreds of independently evolving subspaces during spin system evolution [13]. Another order of magnitude in simulation time is saved by replacing phase cycles with analytical coherence order selection – when the spherical tensor basis set is used, orders of spin coherence are the quantum numbers used to classify basis vectors, meaning see more that coherence order filters amount to zeroing the coefficients of the unwanted states. This removes the need to emulate spectrometer phase cycles, saving a factor of 8, 16 or 32 (depending on the phase cycle length) in the simulation time. After all of these refinements are

learn more applied, ubiquitin simulations run in about 24 hours. All NMR spectra were recorded at 300 K on Bruker AVANCE-III 900 and Varian Inova600 spectrometers equipped with 1H, 13C, 15N triple-resonance probes. 8.0 mM solution of 13C, 15N labelled human ubiquitin in D2O, buffered at pH = 5.8 (uncorrected for deuterium isotope effect) with 50 mM phosphate buffer, was used in all experiments. All related compounds were obtained commercially and used without further purification. NOESY [21], HNCO [22] and HSQC [23] spectra were recorded as described in the papers cited. NMR signal acquisition and digital signal processing parameters (window functions, time-domain zerofilling, frequency offsets) between the theoretical simulations and the experimental data were matched. Simulation source code listing the specific parameter values used is available at as a part of the

Spinach package [18] example set. Currently available database records of protein chemical shifts are not complete [24] and [25] – rapidly exchanging protons, quaternary carbons and side chain nitrogens are often missing. The gaps in the chemical Vitamin B12 shift information were filled using literature average values reported by the BMRB database [25]. The following chemical shift data post-processing was then applied: symmetry-related methyl group protons (listed once in BMRB) were replicated using PDB coordinates; unassigned capping groups on C- and N-termini were ignored; all oxygen and sulphur atoms were removed (16O, 32S and 34S nuclei have no spin); symmetry-related carbons and protons in PHE and TYR aromatic rings (listed once in BMRB) were replicated using PDB coordinates; protons of deuterated or exchanging groups, such as –OH or –NH3+, were ignored; magnetically equivalent –CH2– group protons (listed once in BMRB) were replicated using PDB coordinates.

During the period 1993–2009 the correlation coefficient R of the

During the period 1993–2009 the correlation coefficient R of the winter (JFM) NOy deposition with the length of the ice season varied between R = —0.52 over B2 and R = –0.19 over B4. The minimum probability (P-value) was 0.028 and the explanation factor R2 = 26.7% over B2. The anti-correlation Lumacaftor solubility dmso is stronger when December is included in the winter period. When winter is defined either as DJF or DJFM, the correlation is extremely significant (P < 0.0006, R2 > 54%) over B2, the Gulf of Finland, and significant (P < 0.01, R2 > 35%) over B3. For B2 the variation

in the length of the ice season is important, because over this sea area the share of the annual airborne load due to winter and autumn deposition is 55–70%. However, ice conditions depend on the frequency of northerly or easterly continental airstreams, and all other MBL parameters vary with the cold air as well. Figure 15 presents the seasonally averaged correlation of the monthly NAO index with the oxidized

nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea subbasins in the years 1993–2009. The correlation was extremely significant over B2, the Gulf of Finland, in winter (JFM), and significant (P < 0.01) over B3 and B4 in winter and over B1 in autumn (OND). The reasons for and the Kinase Inhibitor Library price origin of the episodically-received external load to the northern Baltic Sea sub-basins B1–B3 cannot be explained fully by instantaneous local meteorological factors (wind speed or direction, turbulence, state of other weather elements or the passing of a cyclone), because nitrogen compounds are transported

long distances to the areas of deposition and they remain in the air for several days before the being deposited. Each episode is the result of a chain of events connected to cyclonal and frontal activity. Precipitation and weather extremes are not concurrent with the cyclone centre crossing a given sea area, but tend to occur with a time lead, as the wind field connected with cyclones and fronts is complicated. However, deposition does seem to depend on the frequency of extreme weather events and cyclone activity, which in turn depend on the variation of large-scale weather patterns, such as the NAO, prevailing over the Baltic Sea. The results of the analysis of wind velocity and pressure minimum extremes presented in the previous section can be compared with estimates of storm frequency along the Swedish coast in the southern and northern BS (Eek 2000) or along the western BS5 (Olsson 2002); these show that at the Vingas station there was a distinct minimum in storm frequency between around 1935 and 1968, a maximum in 1920–1930 and in the 1980s. A similar variation, with some differences in the details of years and periods, can be seen from the data of the other stations studied by Olsson and Eek. The total number of severe storms was highest in 1919–1929 and 1940–1949 (Eek 2000).

3) GUA treatment suppressed this CLP effect on memory CLP impai

3). GUA treatment suppressed this CLP effect on memory. CLP impaired the novel object recognition memory, i.e., rats

from this group did not spend a significant higher percentage of time exploring the novel object during short and long-term retention test sessions in comparison to the training trial (Fig. 4). GUA treatment suppressed this CLP effect on memory. CLP caused an increase Trichostatin A in the immobility time, compared to the sham group (Fig. 5) in the test session (5 min) of the forced swimming task, suggesting a depressive-like behavioral effect. GUA treatment suppressed this CLP effect. In the present study, we showed that GUA was effective in reversing oxidative brain damage and cognitive impairment in an animal model of sepsis, a model that is characterized by presenting cognitive impairment in survivors associated with deleterious effects caused, at least in part, by reactive oxygen species in brain tissue. Normal glutamatergic neurotransmission is essential for synaptic development Staurosporine datasheet and plasticity as well as learning and memory. In contrast, excessive glutamate excitation

plays a role in a variety of neurological disorders. Survival pathways appear to be mediated via NMDA receptor synaptic activity, whereas neuronal damage may be mediated by excessive extrasynaptic activity (Okamoto et al., Tenofovir cost 2009). Severe overstimulation of excitatory receptors can cause necrotic cell death, while less fulminant or chronic overstimulation

can cause apoptotic or other forms of cell death (Budd et al., 2000). These events are associated with overactivation of NMDA receptors that causes an excessive influx of Ca2+ ions, which trigger a series of toxic events ultimately leading to cell death by generating ROS and activating neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) (Garthwaite et al., 1988). Since GUA is thought to serve as an important local regulator of glutamatergic neurotransmission (Schmidt et al., 2007), the therapeutic value of GUA, other guanine-based purines and their analogs are under active investigation for disorders whose pathophysiology is thought to include abnormalities of NMDA receptor mediated neurotransmission (Hardingham, 2009). An extensive body of evidence from experimental and clinical studies indicates that sepsis is associated with excess glutamate release, activation of glutamate receptors that results in several metabolic alterations in the brain, such as decreased energy supplies, ATP depletion, increased ROS production, depletion of antioxidants, and accumulation of markers of oxidative stress (Dal-Pizzol et al., 2010). In an animal model, oxidative damage occurred early in the course of sepsis development in several brain regions (Barichello et al.

In the east, the offshore and onshore branches of the loop tend t

In the east, the offshore and onshore branches of the loop tend to cross mainly between the 5 m depth contour and the shoreline (Figure 5). There is some uncertainty regarding the location of their crossings with respect to the true local depth due to the insufficient accuracy of the bottom topography model, sea level instability, and inadequate spatial resolution of radiance data in the near-shore space. In any case, the latter comprises the surf zone. Its radiance peaks during onshore winds when the bottom reflectance radiance is added to the radiance of the water column enhanced by the backscattering of particles resuspended by wave-breaking. The surf zone is virtually free of wave-breaking during

offshore winds and, therefore, the dominance of the onshore radiance PD0332991 solubility dmso over the offshore one in the close vicinity of the shoreline is a quite predictable event. The contribution of bottom reflection to the red radiance vanishes at depths Z > 3 m, whereas green radiance can be contributed to by bottom reflection in much deeper waters ( (1) and Figure 1). These considerations agree well with the fact that maximum Lmaxwnav(λ) gravitated to the eastern shores

of the testing area regardless of wind direction ( Figure 3) and that the maxima of profiles dLav (670) tend to be shifted shorewards as compared to similar maxima at shorter wavelengths ( Figure 5). The largest positive differences dLof_onwnav in the blue, green and red occurred at depths 10 < Z < 15 m ((d)–(f) in Figure 5). The spectral-different dLof_onwnav LY2157299 changed concurrently in the zonal direction and occupied one and the same profile segments, where the bottom depth is large enough to prevent the wave-breaking GPX6 resuspension mechanism. Hence, the difference in sediment resuspension, induced by opposing winds, has to be the only cause of the dLof_onwnav (670) peak. Evidently, the same is true for dLof_onwnav (555) and dLof_onwnav (443), although these radiances can be enhanced by the background wind-independent backscattering and by bottom reflection at 10 < Z < 15 m at the water transparencies typical of the southern Caspian Sea. The background component vanishes when passing from the offshore

and onshore radiances to their difference. Most probably, the same is true as regards the bottom reflection: to our knowledge, non-sinusoidal sand ripples are the only conceivable factor in the directional dependence of bottom reflectance, but we failed to find any evidence of such ripples in the study area. Hence, specific features of resuspension mechanisms for offshore and onshore winds determine the occurrence of the radiance loops and peaks of dLof_onwnav (λ) at sites with more than 10 m of water. The resuspension mechanisms in shallows are closely associated with cross-shelf water transport, which has been subjected to intensive field experimental studies in the last 10 years (Lentz, 2001, Lentz and Chapman, 2004 and Kirincich et al.

An additional objective was to examine whether T cruzi infection

An additional objective was to examine whether T. cruzi infection has an influence on these associations. The study was conducted in Bambuí city (∼15,000 inhabitants), which is situated in the southeastern Brazil and is one of the oldest known endemic areas for Chagas disease. The procedures used in the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging have been described in detail elsewhere [18]. Briefly,

the baseline cohort population comprised all residents who were 60 years old or older on January 1, 1997, and who were identified by means of a complete census conducted in the city. A total of 1606 (92.2%) of the 1742 eligible residents participated. The present study is based on the baseline data collection, performed in 1997, comprising standardized selleck inhibitor interviews, blood tests, blood pressure measurements, and electrocardiogram (ECG). Participants signed an informed consent form and authorized death-certificate verification. The Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging was approved by the ethics board of the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Blood samples for

the measurement of BNP were collected in tubes containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). BNP was measured using a microparticle-based immunoassay (MEIA/AxSYM, Abbott Laboratories). The lower limits of detection and the average inter-assay coefficients of variation were less than 15 pg/mL and 12%, respectively. Subjects were asked to fast for 12 h prior to an early-morning (6:30–8:30 AM) phlebotomy. click here The samples were aliquoted and stored at −80 °C until used. Anthropometric measures used in the analysis were BMI, waist circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness. tuclazepam Two high-precision digital scales (range 0–150 kg × 0.1 kg) were used for the measurement of weight (kg) and height (cm). BMI was calculated using the conventional

formula of weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters. A CMS Portable Stadiometer kit (CMS Weighing Equipment Ltd., London) was used for measurements of the waist circumference (WC) at umbilicus height and triceps skin-fold thickness (TSF) (mm). The reliability of these measurements was determined by repeating them in a 5% cohort of all of the study participants [19]. All measures were performed with individuals wearing light clothing and no shoes. Infection with T. cruzi at baseline was assessed by concurrently performing a hemagglutination assay (Biolab Mérieux SA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Abbott Laboratories, Inc., North Chicago, IL; and Wiener Laboratories, Rosario, Argentina). The agreement (Cohen’s kappa) among these assays was 0.989 (p < 0.001). Seropositivity in all three examinations was the criterion for the presence of infection; absence of infection was defined as consistent seronegativity.

A pupil has continued the general trend of his teacher’s studies

A pupil has continued the general trend of his teacher’s studies. His first research

there was devoted to the study of the pathogenesis of tetanus and mechanisms of tetanus toxin action. After years of research into the problem he was able to get direct evidence of tetanus toxin neural transport from the muscles to the central nervous system (CNS), which put an end to disputes about the ways of tetanus toxin receipt in see more the CNS. A fundamentally new was his definition of the tetanus nature as a complex polysistemic disease with involvement of different integrative systems and organs. These and other studies have been summarized in Kryzhanovsky’s doctoral thesis and two books of 1966: “Tetanus: The pathogenesis, clinical features, treatment, and recovery in the pathophysiological aspect” and “Tetanus”. While working with tetanus toxin and antibodies toward it, his team obtained first

“true anti-antibodies” or anti-idiotypes against anti-tetanus immunoglobulins. This pioneering work of his group (1960–1962) preceded analogous Western publications by J. Oudin for years.1 His priority in this field still has to be appreciated by world Immunology. In 1966 he became head of the Laboratory of infectious diseases of the nervous system (later – the Laboratory of General Pathology mTOR inhibitor of the nervous system), which Kryzhanovsky led to the last days of his life. In 1984, Professor G.N. Kryzhanovsky was elected a full member of the Academy of Medical Sciences Roflumilast of the USSR. From 1983 to 2001 he headed the Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, keeping the good tradition established by his predecessors – the outstanding scientists A.D. Speransky, V.N. Chernigovsky, V.V. Parin, A.M. Chernukh. Until the end of his career he remained an Honorary Director of this Institute, giving to it all his creative powers. For his research achievements G.N. Kryzhanovsky awarded the State Prize of the USSR and the highest award of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences – N.I. Pirogov Prize

and Medal. He also awarded a number of medals of foreign scientific societies and achieved orders of the USSR – the Order “Friendship”, the Order of Honors and “Badge of Honor”. G.N. Kryzhanovsky made a significant contribution to the organization and planning of national biomedical research, coordination of the scientific institutions of the Academy of Medical Sciences, being an Academician – secretary of the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, member of the Presidium of the USSR and Russia’s Academy of Medical Sciences (since 1985 till 1995). He was Adviser to the Presidium of the Academy of Medical Sciences (1995–2001). Since 1982 till the last day of life he was the President of Soviet (later on – All-Russia’s) Society of Pathophysiologists. Thanks to his energy, commitment and a lot of scientific and organizational experience, G.N.