Data on period of maximum drinking could be important, particularly given the marked variation in alcohol intake during the lifespan. Perform studies in understudied areas, including but not limited to the effects of alcohol on diabetes, obesity, cognition, healthy aging, and food intake. Focus on relationships things between drinking patterns and chronic disease. Drinking patterns include but are not limited to basic patterns such as usual quantity, frequency, and binge drinking as well as when, where, and with whom alcohol was consumed and whether it was consumed with a meal. Encourage clinical trials across the spectrum of chronic disease from studies that examine key physiological parameters and intermediate studies such as feeding studies that examine surrogates or subclinical phenotypes to practical trials that examine Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries chronic disease outcomes.
Physiologic studies are preferred when epidemio-logic evidence is relatively limited. Practical trials are preferred when there is extensive evidence from physiological and epidemiological studies. Encourage studies examining the interactions Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries between the genetics that predispose individuals to drink and the genetics that modify how alcohol affects chronic disease. Encourage studies of carefully defined homogeneous phenotypes. For example, studies are needed to clarify the effects of alcohol on thrombotic versus embolic ischemic stroke, Alzheimer��s disease versus other dementias, specific eye diseases, etc.
Encourage Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries studies on moderate drinking patterns and metabolism ranging from total energy and macronutrient metabolism to specific metabolic pathways for small molecules such as vitamins, amino acids, sugars, and steroids and their products and precursors. Examine the effectiveness of communication messages about drinking. Studies may include, but are not limited to, how to disseminate cost-benefit messages, individualized messages based on patient demographic and clinical history, and guidance for health care professionals on how to advise patients. Encourage the use of natural Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries experiments to examine whether policy interventions or alcohol intervention studies might change the relationship between alcohol and chronic disease. Clinical Trials Clinical studies include clinical nutrition studies, controlled feeding studies, and Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries metabolic studies.
This type of research has numerous strengths for studying alcohol and chronic disease, including Anacetrapib the ability to control alcohol dose and diet, collect abundant biologic samples from a variety of tissues, assess cause and effect, and examine mechanisms��all with a relatively small number of participants enrolled for a short period of time. Clinical study end points typically are surrogate markers for chronic diseases because the disease itself may take years or even decades to develop.