We conjecture that synergism with ail is necessary for Y enteroc

We conjecture that synergism with ail is necessary for Y. enterocolitica pathogenesis. ail is not only an important virulence gene for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica,

but also harbors highly conserved sequences, mutation of which may change the virulence of the bacterium. For instance, in the 1B/O:8 strain, which is highly lethal to mice, the ail belongs to pattern A2, while ail in other pathogenic bioserotype strains belongs to pattern A1. So we believe that a change in ail is closely related to the pathogenesis of the strain. A pathogenic O:9 strain isolated from Cricetulus triton in Ningxia contains ail pattern A3, the sequence of which has 3 site mutations, only one being a sense mutation. Further study is needed to see whether amino RepSox ic50 acid change alters the function of Ail protein or bacterial virulence. Analysis of the 1,434 base pairs buy KU-57788 of the foxA primary coding region showed that the foxA sequence correlated with the biotype and serotype of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. Comparing the primary sequences of groups I and II, 13 base mutations at fixed positions

were found; 5 were sense and 8 were nonsense mutations, indicating that the primary difference in the pathogenic Y. enterocolitica foxA was located in these 13 sites. Strain 8081 showed 26 base mutations compared to F1 and 31 compared to F4. From these findings we presume that pathogenic O:3 and O:9 have similar foxA sequences (Fig. 2) and mutation sites additional to strain 8081 bio-serotype 1B/O:8 (Fig. 3). Thus, there is a correlation between pathogenesis and the different bio-serotypes of Y. enterocolitica. More mutation see more sites and no obvious regulation were found in non-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica foxA, although some strains showed an identical foxA sequence type (Fig. 2). The identical sequence patterns of the pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from different areas, at different times and from different host sources show the foxA sequence

pattern to be closely correlated to pathogenesis. Unfortunately, fewer strains from outside China were used, which is a limitation of the study and needs adding strains for future study. ail is a primary marker for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and is an important tool for detecting it, making it a very important gene to Nepicastat analyze. Some scholars have established a real-time PCR assay to detect Y. enterocolitica using ail or ystA as the target gene [30–33]. According to the current identification standards, strains having no ail and harboring ystB isolated from diarrhea patients are classified as non-pathogenic. However, other researchers believe that strains harboring ystB are pathogenic and cause the diarrhea, as inferred from epidemiology and the etiology of disease outbreaks [34, 35].

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