At wavelengths >683 nm, non-variable fluorescence from PSI pigmen

At wavelengths >683 nm, non-variable fluorescence from PSI pigments dampens F v/F m. Consequently, the observed F v/F m is strongly dependent on the emission detection band centre and width. For broad detection bands positioned >700 nm, the deviation from the maximum F v/F m amounted to up to 35%, equivalent to the reduction of

F v/F m = 0.65 as observed for some of our cyanobacteria cultures (Fig. 3) to 0.42. The use of instruments with long-pass filters with a cut-off >700 nm can thus explain low F v/F m readings in cyanobacteria, complementary to the explanation that phycobilipigment fluorescence elevates F 0 as highlighted by Campbell et al. (1998). Fig. 11 Dampening of observed F v/F m with changing emission band position and width. The plots show the average of F v/F m(λex,λem) measured in all a algal cultures, with λex = 470 nm, Selleckchem Dibutyryl-cAMP and b cyanobacterial cultures, with λex = 590 nm. Before averaging, F v/F m(λex,λem) emission spectra were normalized to their peak (found Acadesine manufacturer in the 680–690 nm emission region). Dashed lines indicate the standard deviation of the normalized F v/F m(λex,λem) emission spectra. All lines were smoothed over 5 nm. The sharply peaked F v/F m feature observed in all cyanobacteria cultures imposes strict

limitations on the configuration of the emission slit Interpretation of community F v/F m from selected optical configurations We have demonstrated the need for careful selection of excitation and emission bands in fluorometer design to prevent bias against cyanobacterial representation in the measured signal. We now show some Caspase Inhibitor VI ic50 examples of community F v/F m measurements using theoretical fluorometer configurations, using the same ADP ribosylation factor simulated community fluorescence data as in preceding exercises. Because we use DCMU instead of illumination-induced F m in all simulations,

differences in the retrieval of algal or cyanobacterial F v/F m do not reflect the (in)ability of the fluorometer to incite the maximum attainable variable fluorescence. Community F v/F m is, as before, compared to algae- and cyanobacteria-specific F v/F m(470,683) and F v/F m(590,683), respectively. The excitation bandwidth is indicated for each case, while the emission is recorded in a 10-nm wide band centred at 683 nm, i.e. the optimum setting that allows for cyanobacterial F v/F m values up to the same level as found in algae. Results for narrow-band (10 nm) single excitation channel configurations with excitation at 470 and 590 nm were already detailed in Fig. 8a, b, respectively. The results for the 470-nm channel configuration (Fig. 8a) were representative of excitation channels throughout the 450–500 nm range (not shown). This configuration is representative of variable fluorescence fluorometers with a filter design similar to those used for the determination of Chla concentration (excitation in the 400–500 nm range, e.g. Corning 5–60 type filter, emission with a high-pass filter >650 nm, e.g. Corning 2–64 filter).

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