The individual patient data are presented in Appendix 1 on the eAddenda. The main effect for treatment (F (1, 21) = 6.33, p = 0.02, ηp2 = 0.23), the main effect for time (F (1, 21) = 35.26, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.63),
and the interaction between treatment and time (F (1, 42) = 10.45, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.33) were significant. The best estimate of the magnitude of the effect of 20 min of Modulators stretching on the change in blood glucose was a reduction of 28 mg/dL, with a 95% CI of 13 to 43. The best estimate of the magnitude of the effect of 40 min of stretching on the change in blood glucose was a reduction of 24 mg/dL, with a 95% CI of 9 to 39. Post hoc analysis of the interaction between treatment and time showed that for the mock stretch the 40 min value was significantly less than either 0 min or 20 min, GDC-0973 concentration while for stretching both the 20 min and 40 min values
were significantly less than 0 min. In addition, the stretching 20 min Selleckchem Bioactive Compound Library and 40 min values were significantly less than their mock stretching counterparts. The analysis of day-to-day variation (ie, the stretching and mock stretching results collapsed across days) showed that both the main effect for days and the interaction between days and measurement times were not significant. The main effect for time, however, was significant. The blood glucose levels at 0 min were significantly greater than those at 40 min. The purpose of this study was to determine if a program of passive static stretching could significantly lower blood glucose in people with Type 2 diabetes or ‘at risk’ for developing Type 2 diabetes. The results suggest that engaging in 20 minutes or more of passive static stretching will lower blood glucose values to a greater extent than doing nothing. This finding is noteworthy especially considering that the study design placed stretching
in a ‘worst case’ scenario for demonstrating a treatment effect. First, instead of having the participants lie motionless for the control portion, the subjects engaged in mock stretching. Since even light activity however can start to lower blood glucose, having the people move around into different positions increased the likelihood of having both of the study conditions lower blood glucose. Thus, having the stretching treatment lower blood glucose significantly more than the mock stretching strengthens the argument that the stretching by itself influences blood glucose. Second, stretching may possibly cause discomfort and pain during the stretch. Emotional and physical stress can cause the release of cortisol and catecholamines, both of which can raise blood glucose via activation of liver glycogenolysis. However, the stretching used in the experimental condition was not ‘eased off’ to the point of no discomfort. Nevertheless, the stretching regimen still produced significantly lower blood glucose levels at 20 and 40 minutes than the control condition.