It has been considered that the primary mechanism to


It has been considered that the primary mechanism to

affect the structure of intact cells is inertial cavitation that can induce irreversible damage as well as increase cell membrane permeability [56, 57]. An important application of HIFU and microbubbles lies in the area of altering the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). In a study in 2002, Mesiwala et al. observed that HIFU could alter BBB permeability. HIFU induced reversible, nondestructive, BBB disruption in a targeted area and this opening reversed after 72h. The authors showed with microscopy that HIFU either entirely preserved brain architecture while opening the BBB, or generated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tissue damage in a small volume within the region of BBB opening. Further electron microscopy suggested that HIFU Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical disrupted the BBB by opening capillary endothelial cell tight junctions, a mechanism that was not observed in other methods used to open BBB [58]. The effect of FUS on tight junctions’ integrity was later confirmed in a study investigating rat brain microvessels after this BBB disruption. The authors used immunoelectron microscopy to identify tight junctional proteins such as occludin, claudin-1, claudin-5,

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and submembranous ZO-1 after sonication. They found substantial redistribution and loss of occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1. However, claudin-1 seemed less involved. Monitoring the leakage of horseradish peroxidase (MW 40KDa) the authors observed that the BBB disruption appears to last up to 4h after sonication Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical [59]. In a later study the role of caveolin in the mechanism of FUS-BBB enhanced permeation was suggested. In a study investigating caveolae density it was found

that caveolae and caveolin-1 were primarily localized in the brain microvascular endothelial cells of all the animals tested (rats) regardless of treatment, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and that caveolin-1 expression was the highest in the rats treated with both FUS and microbubbles. The authors concluded that caveolin-1-mediated transcellular Navitoclax clinical trial transport pathway may cooperate with other transport pathways Montelukast Sodium (e.g., tight junctional disruption) to induce opening of the BBB [60]. Hynynen and colleagues investigated the BBB FUS enhanced permeability in rabbits. Rabbit brains were exposed to pulsed focused ultrasound while microbubbles were intravenously administered. The BBB opening was measured by an MRI contrast agent evaluating the local enhancement in the brain. The authors found that low ultrasound powers and pressure amplitudes were found to cause focal enhancement of BBB permeability. Trypan blue injected before animals were sacrificed indicated blue spots in the areas of the sonicated locations [61]. The authors concluded that HIFU disruption of BBB could be used enhancing drug delivery to the brain [62]. McDannold et al.

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