The downregulation of SR-A by curcumin was via ubiquitinproteasomecalpain-mediated proteolysis. Furthermore, the curcumin-induced upregulation of ABCA1 was mainly through calmodulin-liver X receptor
a (LXRa)-dependent transcriptional regulation. Curcumin administration modulated the expression of SR-A, ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-BI in aortas and retarded atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice. Conclusion Our findings suggest that inhibition of SR-A-mediated oxLDL uptake and promotion of ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux are two crucial events in suppression of cholesterol accumulation by curcumin in the transformation of macrophage foam cells.”
“Platelets and the lungs have an intimate relationship. Platelets are anucleate mammalian blood cells that continuously GSK461364 cost circulate through pulmonary vessels and that have major effector activities in hemostasis and inflammation. The lungs are reservoirs for megakaryocytes, the requisite precursor cell in thrombopoiesis,
which is the intricate process Cediranib by which platelets are generated. Platelets contribute to basal barrier integrity of the alveolar capillaries, which selectively restricts the transfer of water, proteins, and red blood cells out of the vessels. Platelets also contribute to pulmonary vascular repair. Although platelets bolster hemostatic and inflammatory defense of the healthy lung, experimental evidence and clinical evidence indicate that these blood cells are effectors of injury in a variety of pulmonary disorders and syndromes. Newly discovered biological capacities of platelets are being explored in the context of lung defense, disease, and remodeling.”
“Bonetto A, Aydogdu T, Jin X, Zhang Z, Zhan R, Puzis L, Koniaris LG, Zimmers TA. JAK/STAT3 pathway inhibition blocks skeletal muscle wasting downstream of IL-6 and in experimental cancer cachexia. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 303: Cyclosporin A cell line E410-E421, 2012. First published June 5, 2012; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00039.2012.-Cachexia, the metabolic dysregulation leading to
sustained loss of muscle and adipose tissue, is a devastating complication of cancer and other chronic diseases. Interleukin-6 and related cytokines are associated with muscle wasting in clinical and experimental cachexia, although the mechanisms by which they might induce muscle wasting are unknown. One pathway activated strongly by IL-6 family ligands is the JAK/STAT3 pathway, the function of which has not been evaluated in regulation of skeletal muscle mass. Recently, we showed that skeletal muscle STAT3 phosphorylation, nuclear localization, and target gene expression are activated in C26 cancer cachexia, a model with high IL-6 family ligands. Here, we report that STAT3 activation is a common feature of muscle wasting, activated in muscle by IL-6 in vivo and in vitro and by different types of cancer and sterile sepsis.