(C) 2013 The Authors

(C) 2013 The Authors. PD0332991 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Among the set of mammalian DNA polymerases, DNA polymerases belonging to the X and Y families have a special place. The majority of these enzymes are involved in repair, including base excision repair and non-homologous end joining. Some of them play a crucial role during the specific process which is referred to as translesion synthesis (TLS). TLS intends

for the cell surviving during the replication of damaged DNA templates. Additionally, specific activities of TLS-polymerases have to be useful for repair of double-stranded clustered lesions: if the synthesis is proceeded via base excision repair process, the role of DNA polymerases beta or lambda will be important. In this review we discussed the biochemical properties and functional relevance of X family DNA polymerases beta and lambda. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a poorly differentiated squamous cancer characterized by rearrangement of the NUT gene. Research

advances have provided opportunities for targeted therapy in NMC, yet the clinical features of this rare disease have not been systematically characterized. We BMS-777607 inhibitor report on a large population of such patients to identify the disease characteristics and treatments, correlate them with outcome, and to consider clinical recommendations.\n\nExperimental Design: A clinical database was established using retrospective demographic and outcomes data available on all known cases of NMC. Questionnaires were completed by treating physicians. β-Nicotinamide Pathologic, demographic, and clinical variables were assessed for 63 patients, the largest cohort of patients with NMC studied to date. Outcome data from 54 patients were available for survival analyses.\n\nResults: The diagnosis of NMC has increased annually

since 2007. Since 2009, there has been an observed increase in the age at diagnosis (P < 0.05). Geographic distribution of patients with NMC has been concentrated in the United States (n = 41, 65%). The median overall survival for patients with NMC was 6.7 months. The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 9% with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1% to 17% [1-year PFS 15% (5-24%) and 2-year overall survival (OS) was 19% with a 95% CI of 7%-31% (1-year OS: 30% (27-34%)]. Multivariate analysis suggested that extent of surgical resection and initial radiotherapy were independent predictors of PFS and OS. Notably, no chemotherapeutic regimen was associated with improved outcome.\n\nConclusions: NMC portends a poor prognosis among all squamous cell neoplasms and seems to be frequently unrecognized.

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