The calculated crystallite size is presented in Table 2. The result showed that the Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor ZnO NRs that were synthesized on the 2-ME seeded layer produced the smallest crystallite size of 39.18 nm. This result is consistent with the SEM images. However, the largest crystallite size of 58.75 nm was observed when the ZnO NRs were synthesized on the seeded EtOH layer. This finding may be due to the higher viscosity of the EtOH solvent than those of the other solvents. Table 2 Measured
structural properties of ZnO NRs using XRD for different solvents Solvent XRD (100) peak position XRD (002) peak position a(Ǻ) (100) c(Ǻ) (002) Grain size (nm) MeOH 32.02 34.52 3.225 5.192 54.84 EtOH 31.98 34.62 3.229 5.178 58.75 IPA 31.98 34.64 3.229 5.175 45.70 2-ME 32.10 34.68 3.217 5.169 39.18 The lattice constants a and c of the ZnO wurtzite structure can be calculated using Bragg’s law : (2) (3) where λ is the X-ray wavelength of the incident Cu Kα radiation (0.154056 nm). For the bulk ZnO from the JCPDS data with card number 36–1451, the pure lattice constants a and c are 3.2498 and 5.2066 Å, respectively. Based on the results shown in Table 2, all of the ZnO NRs had lower lattice AG-120 clinical trial constant values compared with the bulk
ZnO. The ZnO NRs prepared with MeOH (a = 3.23877 Ǻ and c = 5.20987 Ǻ) were closest to the bulk ZnO. This phenomenon can be attributed to the high-temperature annealing condition. Similar results Mocetinostat Vildagliptin were observed by Lupan et al. , in which the increase in temperature decreases the lattice constant of ZnO. FTIR characterization Figure 5 illustrates the FTIR spectra of the as-deposited four representative ZnO NRs prepared using four different solvents. Given that the wavelength of the fingerprint of the material ranged from 400 to 2,000 cm-1 , the absorption region was fixed in this region. Overall, the spectrum showed
two significant peaks and all of the ZnO NRs that were prepared using different solvents exhibited the same peaks. The ZnO NR morphologies that are grown via wet chemical synthesis prefer the c-axis growth . Thus, the ZnO NRs usually had a reference spectrum at around 406 cm-1 . However, this absorption spectra is found at 410, 412, 409, and 410 cm-1 for the ZnO NRs prepared with the use of MeOH, EtOH, IPA, and 2-ME solvents, respectively, because these solvents caused a blueshift in the spectra of as-prepared ZnO NRs. The band from 540 to 560 cm-1 is also a stretching mode that is correlated with the ZnO [41, 42]. Figure 5 FTIR absorption spectrum of ZnO NRs using various solvents. UV–vis characterization The transmittance spectra and optical properties of the ZnO NRs in the wavelength range of 300 to 800 nm were investigated through UV-visible spectroscopy at RT. The UV-visible transmittance spectra of the ZnO NRs are shown in Figure 6.