2The Yale p38 MAPK inhibitor lab-colony was also established through Bristol lab. 3The Antwerp lab-colony was established in its present form in 1993. Its start-up flies were originally collected in Kariba (Zimbabwe) in 1967 and Handemi PLX-4720 (Tanzania) in 1973 which were pooled in 1978 after a series of enrichments from flies of Bristol, University of Alberta (Canada) and IAEA lab-colonies. 4The Bratislava lab-colony was established from a colony in Seibersdorf, which itself came from Zimbabwe via Bristol (same as 2 above). 5The Seibersdorf lab-colony start-up flies were collected in Tororo, Uganda in 1975. 6The Seibersdorf lab-colony start-up flies were
collected in Nigeria. This colony was transferred to CIRAD, Montpellier, https://www.selleckchem.com/products/cobimetinib-gdc-0973-rg7420.html France in 2009. 7The CIRDES lab-colony start-up flies were collected in Burkina-Faso in early 1990s. 8The Seibersdorf lab-colony start-up flies were collected in Shimba Hills, Kenya. This colony was transferred to Onderstepoort, South Africa in 2009. 9The Seibersdorf lab-colony was established from Central African Republic in 1986. This colony was transferred to Bratislava, Slovakia in 2009. 10The Yale lab-colony was established through Bristol lab. 11The Seibersdorf lab-colony
was established through CIRDES lab, which still has the colony. Despite the heterogenous infections found in field populations, Wolbachia infection was fixed in the laboratory colonies of G. m. morsitans, and G. m. centralis. On the other hand, the infection was not fixed in laboratory colonies of G. brevipalpis and G. pallidipes and was completely absent from the laboratory colonies of the palpalis group species: G. p. palpalis, G. p. gambiensis, G. f. fuscipes and G. tachinoides. Wolbachia prevalence ranged from 9.5 to 100% in natural populations of G. m. morsitans, from 52 to 100% in G. austeni, while it was only 2% in G. brevipalpis. Interestingly, previous studies on G. pallidipes and G. p. gambiensis natural populations did not observe any Wolbachia infection in these species. Our study did not find any evidence for Wolbachia infections in the screened natural
populations of G. p. palpalis and G. Methocarbamol f. fuscipes. It is also interesting to note that the prevalence of Wolbachia infection was not homogenous and varied in different geographic populations for the same species. For example, the infection was fixed in natural populations of G. m. morsitans in Zambia and Tanzania while in Zimbabwe, two different sites exhibited 9.5% (Gokwe) and 100% (Kemukura) prevalence respectively. Genotyping tsetse flies Wolbachia strains The bacterial strains present in each of the eleven Wolbachia-infected Glossina populations (seven natural and four laboratory), representing six species, were genotyped using MLST analysis (Table 2). A total of nine allelic profiles or Sequence Types (ST) was found in tsetse flies Wolbachia strains.