loti MAFF303099 [NP_109574, 43] and plasmid pEMT8 [CAC94910, 44];

loti MAFF303099 [NP_109574, 43] and plasmid pEMT8 [CAC94910, 44]; this gene maybe involved in replication of the element [13]. The ParA partition protein of the type Ib family [45] and its associated ParB protein

was also found but in all cases the ParB was truncated. Rep and Par proteins have been proposed to act as a stabilisation system for the maintenance of mobile elements in bacterial genomes [19, 36], similar to the toxin-anti-toxin system encoded by ORFs s044 and s045 of the SXT-ICE [46]. Qui et al. found that the P. aeruginosa ICE PAPI-1 contains a homologue of the plasmid and chromosome partitioning gene soj (parA). They demonstrated that deletion of learn more the soj homologue from PAPI-1 resulted in complete loss of PAPI-1 from P. aeruginosa. The mechanism by which the Soj protein promotes PAPI-1 maintenance remains to be elucidated [47]. Similar genes to soj have been found in ICE Hin1056 and ICEA [20, 48]. This region was followed by an ORF encoding a conserved hypothetical protein [ORF00040 in Tn4371] whose function is unknown [Fig. 1]. This sequence is followed by a region containing transfer like proteins, the first being a putative conjugation protein TraF related to the pilus assembly proteins of IncP plasmids. This TraF protein is a protease that acts upon the pilus assembly protein TrbC [49]. The second is a putative relaxase-like

protein [ORF00041 in Tn4371] that has similarity to the VirD2 protein of Ti plasmids and to the RlxS [relaxase, CAD31511] of ICEMlSymR7A. Transfer and NU7026 mouse maintenance of ICEMlSymR7A in cells has been shown to be dependent on the relaxase protein RlxS [[39], Fig. 1]. A relaxase, usually encoded by the plasmid, recognizes oriT, makes a single-strand DNA break (a nick) in oriT, and covalently attaches to the 5′ end of the nicked

DNA strand via a phosphotyrosyl linkage. No helicase domain was found in examining the protein so this indicates that the element may use leading-strand DNA synthesis (rolling-circle replication) from Roflumilast the nicked 3′ end to promote strand displacement and single-strand DNA transfer [50, 51]. Following the putative relaxase-like protein is a variable region encoding a number of different ORFs, which vary from element to element; these genes encode putative antibiotic genes, heavy metal resistance pumps and degradative and metabolic enzymes which may have originated by transposition into the element. The sequence between the putative relaxase gene and the first gene of the variable region, in all elements, is similar to the sequence of an area of Tn5 [Z-VAD-FMK cost U00004] indicating that the diversity in this region maybe due to one or a number of Tn5 mediated insertion events. This variable region in the novel ICE in R. pickettii 12J encodes a putative set of lipid metabolising genes [Fig. 1]. These are closely related to genes from Pseudomonas putida W619 [NZ_AAVY01000010.

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