Evaluation of tumor stage was performed according to the criteria of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) . Subjects with a history of gastric surgery, dyspepsia, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, malignancy, positive status for human immunodeficiency virus and/or hepatitis B, active gastrointestinal bleeding, or use of steroids or immunosuppressive drugs, H2
receptor blockers, antibiotics, bismuth compounds, or proton pump inhibitors or taking drugs interfering with free radical production (including vitamins C, A, and #check details randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# E, selenium and zinc) or similar nonprescription, were excluded. Were also excluded if they had had any disease for which reliable clinical information was not available, or LY2090314 solubility dmso if blood samples could not be obtained. Not more than two members of the same family were included. Sampling procedure We studied a total of 627 subjects: 308 from Barbate and 319 from Ubrique. Their ages ranged from 18 to 85 (median 55) years. For statistical analysis, were divided into 3 age groups; younger group (18-40 years; n = 101, median age = 29), middle-aged group (41-60 years, n = 197, median age = 53) and older group
(≥ 61 years, n = 119, median age = 76). Sampling was random, and was stratified for these three age subgroups. Participants in this population study were visited at their home. All eligible subjects gave their informed consent for participation in this study and carried out according to Dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-protein mannosyltransferase the Good Clinical Practice guidelines and Helsinki Declaration. Variables As quantitative variables we recorded serum level of H. pylori IgG-specific antibody, expressed as IU/L [2, 35], serum level of p53, expressed as ng/mL, and serum concentration of ceruloplasmin, expressed as mg/L . As a nominal variable we recorded whether the subject was a resident of Barbate or Ubrique. As a dichotomous variable we used seropositivity/seronegativity for H. pylori, with a cut-off value of 51 IU/L. A blood sample of 10 mL was obtained by venipuncture, and the
serum was separated and stored at -80°C until analysis. Serum concentration of H. pylori IgG antibodies was measured with the Biolab Malakit (Wavre, Belgium) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In using this system, manufacturer’s instructions were followed. H. pylori infection was defined as a positive ELISA result. The ELISA for serum p53 was from Oncogene Research (Calbiochem, Cambridge, MA, USA), that exclusively detected the mutant p53 protein, to eliminate a possibility of cross-reaction with other proteins, especially various inflammation-related products. This assay uses a mouse monoclonal antibody and a rabbit polyclonal antibody; the former reacts with an epitope located between amino acids 155 and 214 of the p53 protein, and binds exclusively to the epitope exposed on the mutant protein, but not on the wild-type protein.