(a) ��You shouldn’t hurt or interfere with me, and I shouldn’t hu

(a) ��You shouldn’t hurt or interfere with me, and I shouldn’t hurt or interfere with you�� [17, page 148]. (b) ��You scratch my back and I scratch yours.�� (c) ��You help me today and I will help you tomorrow in return��.(2) Concrete Materialistic and Individualistic Perspective ��The contents of the exchange or the deal are often concrete or materialistic things selleck chemical such as money or food, or things which are perceived as good to serve one’s own needs or interests such as praise from authorities. The perspective of judgment is individualistic; self-interests precede group or others’ interests.It should be noted that things that are too general or abstract such as basic rights of human beings are seldom considered or valued in the exchange or deal.

(3) Ignoring Others’ Positive Claims and Welfare ��Since people at this stage are holding a concrete individualistic perspective, the positive claims or welfare of others are in general not their concern or responsibility unless such claims and welfare are part of the exchange or deal. In other words, ��one has a right to ignore the positive claims or welfare of others as long as one does not directly violate their freedom or injure them�� [17, page 215].4.3. Stage 3: Primary Group Affection and ConformityPrimary group refers to family, gang, group of friends or intimates, club, school, party, organization, company and so forth. Generally speaking, members of a primary group share common interests, philosophy, ideology, and in some cases properties.

Kohlberg’s [17, 22] Stage 3: ��Mutual Interpersonal Expectations, Relationships, and Interpersonal Conformity,�� and Chinese Cardinal Relationships and family affection are the major bases for elaborating the characteristics of this stage. 4.3.1. Altruism and Human Relationships The study of altruism in terms of kin selection and group selection in sociobiology is a good example of primary group altruism. Sociobiology, as defined by Wilson [24], is ��the systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior�� [24, page 4]. Its central theoretical problem is ��how can altruism, which by definition reduced personal fitness, possibly evolve by natural selection�� [4, page 3]? The answer provided by sociobiologists is kinship. As mentioned before, the evolution of altruism involves mainly group selection and kin selection. People at this stage are willing to perform altruistic acts towards ingroup members at great sacrifice; however, they are much less willing to do so for outgroup members. The Chinese emphasize family integrity, group intimacy, and loyalty. Children are taught to be affective Dacomitinib and altruistic to their primary group members [25].

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