“We have studied the effect of the fieldlike spin torque t

“We have studied the effect of the fieldlike spin torque term b(J), present in magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJs) with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the free layer, on switching characteristics of the devices. We find that b(J)

has a strong impact on the switching current density and switching speed. The theoretical limit of the switching current density can be significantly reduced and the theoretical limit of the switching time will be lowered compare to the spin-valve (SV) devices. These results strongly suggest that the spin transfer Selleckchem CH5424802 torque random access memory based on the MTJs with perpendicularly magnetized free layer will likely have the multiple benefits of much larger intrinsic signal, smaller switching

current, and faster switching speed than the SV devices. (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3530455]“
“The aim of this study was to translate and validate a Brazilian version of the “”Prolapse Quality of Life Questionnaire”" (P-QOL) an instrument to assess quality of life of women with genital prolapse.

Sixty-five patients answered the P-QOL twice. The reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and validity was assessed comparing symptom scores between affected and asymptomatic women and comparing symptom scores with prolapse stages. Responsiveness was obtained with patients who underwent to genital prolapse surgical corrections.

The results have showed that the Brazilian Portuguese version of P-QOL has had very good psychometric properties. All items achieved WNT974 a Cronbach’s alpha greater than 0.70. The test-retest reliability confirmed that the questionnaire was able to detect changes in quality-of-life

after treatment.

We concluded that the Portuguese version of the P-QOL is a very good instrument to assess quality-of-life Quisinostat in women with genital Prolapse.”
“Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common form of genetic variation in the genome. Scanning a genome for SNPs can help identify millions of potentially informative biomarkers. SNPs have been extensively used as molecular markers in human disease genetics, pharmacogenetics, and breeding, but SNPs have not been widely used in the bioprocess community. In biotechnology applications such as bioprocess development, SNPs may serve as genetic markers for phenotypes of interest such as those related to cell growth and viability, specific productivity, or stability. Furthermore, SNPs that relate to particular phenotypes may be targets for metabolic and cellular engineering. This review introduces study designs that have been used to link SNPs and phenotypes. The review then focuses on the downstream effects of the SNPs at DNA, RNA and protein levels. Finally, this review discusses specific examples to apply SNPs for breeding, strain evolution, and biomolecule production.

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