TZ and YL wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are an extremely important group of agricultural insect pests that cause serious damage by weakening plants, excreting honeydew and transmitting several hundreds of plant viruses
. The most economically important of these is the cosmopolitan sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), which is a species complex of more than 20 biotypes. The B and Q biotypes, among the most predominant and damaging worldwide, differ in many biological parameters, including resistance to insecticides, ability to damage ARN-509 supplier plants  and tolerance to LGK-974 cell line environmental conditions . Another important whitefly insect pest is the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum
(Westwood) which is less important as a virus vector, but causes serious damage by direct feeding on plants. Whereas T. vaporariorum can be identified based on external morphology (Figure 1), B. tabaci biotypes are only well defined by DNA markers . Figure 1 Whiteflies in Croatia. Demonstration of heavy whitefly infestations on cucumbers grown in the coastal part of Croatia (A), and external phenotypical differences between B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum (B). Symbiosis is quite common among known whitefly species. Both B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum harbor the primary obligatory bacterium Portiera aleyrodidarum, which supplements their unbalanced diet . B. tabaci can also harbor a diverse array of facultative PXD101 in vitro secondary symbionts, including the Gammaproteobacteria Racecadotril Arsenophonus (Enterobacteriales), Hamiltonella (Enterobacteriales) [5, 6], Fritschea (Chlamydiales)  and Cardinium (Bacteroidetes)
, and the Alphaproteobacteria Rickettsia (Rickettsiales)  and Wolbachia (Rickettsiales) . A clear association between B. tabaci biotypes and secondary symbionts has been observed in Israeli populations: Hamiltonella is detected only in the B biotype, Wolbachia and Arsenophonus only in the Q biotype, and Rickettsia in both biotypes . Fritschea has only been detected in the A biotype from the United States , and only Arsenophonus has been associated with T. vaporariorum . Virtually nothing is known about the functions these symbionts might fulfill in whiteflies. However, in other arthropods, they may influence their host’s nutrition, host plant utilization and ability to cope with environmental stress factors, induce resistance to parasitoids, and effect reproductive manipulations . For example Wolbachia, Cardinium, Rickettsia and Arsenophonus are known to manipulate reproduction in a wide range of insect species by inducing cytoplasmic incompatibilities or sex ratio bias [15–18]. Hamiltonella defensa induces parasitoid resistance in the pea aphid , whereas Fritschea bemisiae has no known effect.