The find more extracted plasmid was then successfully introduced into E. coli from which we could obtain the needed high-quality plasmid preparation (Qiagen Plasmid Kits) to electroporate L. sakei RV2002. The L. sakei sigH null mutant (RV7003 designated sigH(nul) in the text) was obtained
via a double cross-over homologous recombination with the pRV622 integrative plasmid. To inactivate the sigH gene we deleted its putative promoter and the first 34 codons while introducing an in-frame stop codon at the endpoint of the deletion (see additional file 2: Genotypes of L. sakei strains affected in sigH). The upstream and downstream fragments were generated by PCR using respectively AML51/AML52 and AML53/AML54 primer pairs, thereby introducing an EcoRI site in sigH. Each amplicon was digested with EcoRI, followed by DNA ligation and digestion click here with PstI and XhoI. The resulting 1.1 kb fragment was then reamplified by the distal primers Pevonedistat AML51 and AML54 and cloned by blunt-end
ligation after treatment with T4 polymerase, into the pRV610 cloning vector  cut by SmaI. As above, L. casei BL23 was used as a host for cloning, giving plasmid pRV621. This plasmid was then successfully introduced into E. coli and an intra-molecular deletion of the Gram + replication cassette was generated between unique restriction sites EcoRV and KpnI repaired by T4 polymerase, giving pRV622 which replicates in E. coli. Gene replacement in L. sakei was carried out as described , with two successive single crossovers, the first one leading to chromosomal integration of the plasmid (maintained by erythromycin selection), and the second one allowing plasmid excision, monitored by loss of erythromycin resistance. The mutant chromosomal structure was checked by PCR. Correct sequence of the inserts was checked for pRV619 and pRV622. Induction of PatkY promoter utilization and monitoring using β-galactosidase activity The copper-inducible PatkY promoter was used as described  for sigH overexpression. For this purpose, CuSO4 was added to a final concentration of 30 μM when cultures reached an OD600 of about 0.4. Induction of the PatkY promoter was controlled
with the Y-27632 2HCl sigH(wt)* strain, harboring a PatkY-directed lacZ reporter gene. Sampling was done one hour after induction and β-galactosidase activity was measured according to  using ONPG (o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside) as a substrate. Activities expressed as Miller units relative to OD600 of the culture  were observed to be between 10 and 25 after induction, whereas the non induced standard was around 0.5. Extraction of total RNA L. sakei strains were cultivated at 30°C in MCD under microaerobiosis following the standardized procedure described in the upper section, in the presence of erythromycin for plasmid-containing strains. Cultures of L. sakei were distributed in as many centrifugation tubes as scheduled collecting points and were incubated at 30°C without agitation.