The A mode especially is subject to change for high Se concentrat

The A mode especially is subject to change for high Se concentrations. This fact makes this mode a sensitive NVP-HSP990 mw indicator of variations

in the concentration x. The high-frequency E mode is broadened as in the original data of Richter and Becker [cf. their Figure five(a)]. The position of the A and the higher E mode was weighted stronger than the position of the relatively constant A mode and the lower E mode. The value of x was determined to be 0.7, corresponding to BST. Figure 3 Raman spectrum of a single nanowire and representation of the Raman data for Bi 2 (Te 1−x Se x ) 3 . (a) Raman spectrum of a nanowire grown at 480°C. Four peaks at 66, 112, 129, and 164 cm −1 are obtained from fitting Lorentzians. The peaks can be assigned to the Raman modes of Bi2Se2Te. (b) Representation of the Raman data for Bi2(Te 1−x Se x )3 for 0

maximum). The diameter (measured height) of the nanowires is 22.0 nm, corresponding to 23 quintuple layers (QLs) with 1 QL = 0.96 nm. We can conclude that these nanowires were grown along the [110] direction. Figure 4 AFM micrographs of Bi 2 Se 2 Te nanowires on Si. Two nanowires are visible which stick together side by side, having a diameter (height) of 22.0 nm or 23 quintuple Thiazovivin purchase layers (QLs). The VLS ARRY-438162 in vivo growth mechanism requires the formation of a catalyst-precursor alloy and the subsequent BCKDHB crystallisation out of the supersaturated solution [22]. A metal alloy particle is typically either found at the tip or the root of the nanowire [23]. The samples show root-catalysed growth as can be seen in Figure

1c. A catalyst particle is found at the base of all of the nanowires investigated at this temperature. Tip-based Bi2Se3 nanowire growth was observed by Kong et al. using 20-nm-diameter Au particles in an identical experiment [24]. In contrast, Alegria et al. reported root-based growth of Bi2Se3 nanostructures from an annealed, 5-nm-thick Au layer using metal-organic chemical vapour deposition [18]. The differing growth mechanism was explained by the use of a gas source instead of a solid precursor. Our study suggests that it is not the growth technique that determines the VLS growth mechanism, but rather the size of the catalytic particle. Above a critical size, the catalytic particle is lifted up by the growing nanowire as observed by Kong et al. This effect can be explained by a catalyst-substrate interaction that depends on the size of the catalyst particle. If the Au catalyst alloys with the SiO2/Si substrate, e.g.

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