Free sugars are decreased, indicating lower uptake and/or elevate

Free sugars are decreased, indicating lower uptake and/or elevated mobilisation. Lower levels of trans-zeatins suggest that ABA reduction influences rates of cytokinin synthesis and/or its level of accumulation. Abscisic acid deficiency leads to a general downregulation of gene expression related to transcription and translation. At the transcriptional level, anti-ABA embryos reveal a wide-range repression of carbohydrate oxidation, downregulated

sucrose mobilisation, glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle/Krebs cycle (TCA cycle). Genes related to starch, amino acid and storage protein biosynthesis are downregulated, indicating a general decrease in metabolic fluxes. We conclude that during embryo differentiation ABA triggers broad upregulation of gene activity and genetic reprogramming, involving regulated protein degradation via the ubiquitin/proteasome system. Abscisic acid deficiency affects gene expression associated with transport processes and stimulation of membrane energisation. Our study identified mediators and downstream signalling elements of ABA during embryo differentiation, such as the transcription factor FUSCA3, SnRK1 kinase and Ca2+ signalling processes. This suggests that ABA interacts with SnRK1 complexes, thus connecting SnRK1, sugar and stress signalling with

ABA. Certain protein kinases/phosphatases known to negatively respond to ABA are upregulated in the modulated line, whilst those which respond positively are downregulated, pointing to a highly FK866 supplier coordinated response of the gene network to ABA levels.”
“It is well-known that cytosolic NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (cyMDH; L-malate:NAD-oxidoreductase; EC is Tozasertib datasheet an enzyme crucial for malic acid synthesis in the cytosol. Nothing is known about cyMDH in growth and stress tolerance. Here we characterised the role of the apple cyMDH gene (MdcyMDH, GenBank ID: DQ221207) in growth and tolerance to cold and salt stresses. MdcyMDH transcripts were highly accumulated in vigorously

growing apple tissues, organs and suspension cells. In addition, MdcyMDH was sensitive to cold and salt stresses. MdcyMDH overexpression favourably contributed to cell and plant growth and conferred stress tolerance both in the apple callus and tomato. Taken together, our results indicated that MdcyMDH is involved in plant and cell growth as well as the tolerance to cold and salt stresses. (C) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“We investigated the effect of the expanded criteria donor (ECD) label on (i) recovery of kidneys and (ii) acceptance for transplantation given recovery. An ECD is age >= 60, or age 50-59 with >= 2 of 3 specified comorbidities. Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients from 1999 to 2005, we modeled recovery rates through linear regression and transplantation probabilities via logistic regression, focusing on organs from donors just-younger versus just-older than the ECD age thresholds.

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