Data for WSM in 2002–2013 Rigosertib datasheet including controlled water discharge and suspended sediment concentration, released water and sediment volume, scoured
sediment volume, and water storage (Table 5), were also incorporated to analyze impacts of the WSM on the delivery of Huanghe material to the sea. The Yellow River Water Conservancy Commission (YRCC) provided most of the datasets used in this study. Other data are obtained from the Yellow River Sediment Bulletin and River Sediment Bulletin of China, published by the Ministry of Water Resources, China. Satellite images (HJ-1 CCD) are also used to observe changes of water in the Xiaolangdi reservoir and the lower reaches before and during operation of the Water-Sediment Modulation. The HJ-1 CCD satellite data are available at http://www.cresda.com/n16/index.html. We calculated the number of days for different daily-average water discharges recorded
at Huayuankou and Lijin stations in different time periods, to explore the impacts of dams on flow regulation and control of flood peaks. Given that the Sanmenxia reservoir has a minor effect on flow regulation, we divided the study time period 1950–2011 into four stages: 1950–1968, 1969–1986, 1987–1999 and 2000–2011, corresponding with the construction of the Longyanxia, Liujiaxia, and Xiaolangdi reservoirs. We selleckchem also calculate the difference in water discharge at Huayuankou and Lijin to estimate the water consumption favored by flow regulation through dams. Cumulative infilling of sediment in the Sanmenxia and Xiaolangdi reservoirs
was computed based on the sediment infilling data that were released annually from the Yellow River Sediment Bulletin. Influence of the WSM on Huanghe water and sediment transport to the sea was also assessed through comparison of hydrologic data before and after the operation of the WSM. General effects of dams on the Huanghe include flow regulation, sediment entrapment, control of peak flows, and changes in suspended selleck chemicals llc sediment concentration and grain size. We link the impacts of dams with decreasing Huanghe water and sediment discharges to the sea. The causes and impacts of decreased Huanghe water and sediment discharges have been well documented (Yang et al., 1998, Xu, 2003, Wang et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2007 and Wang et al., 2010) and are reviewed below. In addition, we outline the annual WSM, which has played a significant role in regulating water and sediment discharge to the sea since 2002. The four large dams on the Huanghe modulate river flow by storing floodwater in wet seasons and releasing it in dry seasons. Results of the data analysis reveal that the ratio of average daily discharge during non-flood seasons to the average daily discharge during flood seasons at Huayuankou station increases progressively from 34.2% during 1950–1968 to 67.8% during 2000–2004 (Table 2).