Henoch–Schönlein disease is another disease in this category, but

Henoch–Schönlein disease is another disease in this category, but unfortunately we were not able to obtain specimens from these patients in this study. On the other hand, however, it was relatively difficult to discriminate between lupus nephritis and IgAN by only using the value of the IgA–uromodulin complex; this was probably PI3K Inhibitor Library cell line because of their similarity in terms of the histopathological development of the lesion, such as glomerular IgA deposits and glomerular vasculitis. However, IgAN can be easily discriminated from lupus nephritis based on serological

examination such as anti-nuclear antibody, anti-DNA antibody and compliment levels. Thus, the difficulty of discriminating between IgAN and lupus nephritis by our method does not seem to be a crucial disadvantage for clinicians. As mentioned Daporinad order earlier, the value of the IgA–uromodulin complex tends to be higher not in inactive IgAN having no hematuria but in the earlier phase of the disease in which inflammatory activity is still active. This could be an advantage because the combined treatment with tonsillectomy

and glucocorticoid pulse therapy which can potentially prevent patients from end-stage renal failure is only effective if the intervention can be conducted in the early stage of the disease. In this sense, the value of IgA–uromodulin should be helpful for the selection of appropriate patients for whom this type of combined ALK inhibitor therapy could be beneficial [10–13]. It is needless to say that non-invasive measurement is more desirable than invasive in order to reach an exact diagnosis or selection of the therapeutic measurement. In fact, hesitation in performing renal biopsy often causes a delay in diagnosis and initiation of treatment in managing patients having asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria. The IgA–uromodulin complex, especially compared to total SPTLC1 urine protein, could effectively detect IgAN by differentiating it from other glomerular

diseases. Its value is also supportive in selecting appropriate patients for whom the combined tonsillectomy and glucocorticoid pulse therapy is likely to be effective to avoid further deterioration of IgAN pathology. Although renal biopsy may be unavoidable to reach a definite diagnosis, it should be still worthwhile to test the IgA–uromodulin complex prior to these techniques because of its benefits and easy-to-conduct nature. IgAN is one of the most frequent causes of end-stage renal diseases. Furthermore, the beginning of IgAN is subjectively asymptomatic but only symptomatic in the urinalysis. Moreover, as early treatment intervention is necessary to obtain clinical remission [24], detection of IgAN in its early stage is very important.

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